Rumah gadang (Gadang House) is a traditional house that is the result of Minangkabau ethnic cultures who live in Bukit Barisan, along the western coast of central Sumatra island. Just as the house in the equatorial regions, rumah gadang generally built on pilings (the stage) has cavity at the bottom which is high enough so can provide fresh air especially in the summer.
In addition, Gadang house built lined up according to the direction of the wind from the north to the south in order to be free from the sun and wind.
Roof that is tapered is a typical architecture that distinguishes it from other tribes building in equatorial latitudes that.
Gadang houses have characteristic which are very distinctive. Essentially a form is quadrangle of beams that expands upward. Sharp lines and gentle curved sectional with lower middle part. Curved roofs are very sharp like buffalo horns, while the form of the house curved and ramps like the ship hull. Roofs made from palm fiber.
If it is seen in terms of its function, Gadang houses show the adjustment to the tropical nature. Useful roof taper to release sediment on fibers that are layered, so that rain water will glide quickly on its roof.
Gadang highly exalted even considered sacred. As the venerable and considered sacred every person who come into gadang house would wash his feet first down the stairs. There is provided a wide flat rock, called “Batu Telapakan” which is also a place of water from rock called “Cibuk Meriau” and a bucket of water from the wood named “Taring Berpanto”.
Minangkabau society harmonize life in a natural, harmonious and dynamic, so that their life embraced dialectical theory which they call “bakarano bakajadian” (causal and effect), conflict and balance. Their work which menumental like rumah gadang also contains that philosophy.
The houses only can be found in the small village “Wae Rebo” which is located in the district Manggarai on Flores Island. The houses of the of Manggarai tribe are called “Mbaru Niang” and look like cones.
United Nations which in charge of culture and science said that the provision Award of Excellece to Mbaru Niang is a new recognition of the architectural conservation.
This traditional house beat the 42 other candidates from 11 countries in Asia Pacific, including the historic irrigation systems in India, Zhizhusi complex in China, and Khilingrong mosque in Pakistan.
Wae Rebo can be regarded as a rare type. Not many cone houses are left in Flores.
In Wae Rebo there are four Mbaru Niang in similar size, except one house that serves as the main house and is larger sized where all custom meetings are held. Each house has six to eight families. In their history, once there were seven houses arranged in a semicircle.
In 2010, two aged cone houses have been demolished and rebuilt. In 2011, three cone houses were built, the villager have managed to restore back seven cone houses. All was done by local communities without outside interference. Originality and cultural richness of Wae Rebo are created without outside interference.
UNESCO also gave an award to the Foundation for Foster House, which was pioneered by the eminent architect Yori Antar from Jakarta. First time Yori and his colleagues visited the village in 2008, without knowing exactly where the village is located. Only by pictures on some postcards they asked people around to take them to the village.
With his efforts, finally he succeeded to lead the architectural project in Wae Rebo, utilizing local traditions and empower local people to rebuild the traditional house in the west of Flores.
Bedugul is a tourist attraction that is no less interesting with other places in Bali. Located in the hills with a very cool weather, in the village of Yellow Temple, Baturit subdistrict, Tabanan district, approximately 45 km away from the center of the district (Tabanan), and the distance 50 km from Denpasar town to the northern region, following the temple area highway to go to the place which is located on the edge of Bratan/Beratan lake, the second largest lake in Bali. Boats are also rented for the visitors who want to enjoy the beauty of the lake.
As well as the other tourist attractions in Bali there are also some Hindus temples as a venue for religious events in this location. The famous temple in this place is “Ulun Danu (Ulun Lake) Temple” or is also named as a “Ulun Danu Bratan” temple.
The temple is characterized by the existence of several levels (11 levels) on the top of temple. The form of the temple can be described as a tower building , where the lowest level has the largest size. Each level has a special function for worship, level 11 for Vishnu, level 7 for Brahma and level 3 for Shiva (Hindus God).
Ulun Danu Bratan consist of 4 complex of the temples, that are: “Linga Petak” temple, “Pucak Penataran Mangu” temple, Terate Bang temple, and “Dalem Purwa” temple, which all functioning as a place of worship to The God in their manifestation as a Tri Murti (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu) in order to invoke the grace of fertility, prosperity, human well-being and sustainability of the universe. The Hindus who is came there also for praying to “Danu Goddess”, the Goddess of water, to ask for fertility. Ulun Danu Bratan is known as a center of Balinese irrigation.
In the front left yard of Ulun Danu Bratan, there are sarcophagus and stone board that are came from megalithic era around 500 BC. At this moment both artifacts are placed on the top of Babaturan or terrace which is estimated as the location of Ulun Danu Temple and had been used as a place of ritual activities since the time of the ancient megalithic. Religious ritual ceremony still continues to this day.
Ceremony of Hinduism religion (Bali Customs) at Ulun Danu Bratan Bedugul Bali
Pura Uluwatu is one of the famous temples in Bali. The main attraction for the tourists of this temple is a spectacular panorama which is a blend of both natural and religious attractions. As one of the mainstay tourist on the island of Bali, Uluwatu is located at the southern tip of Bali island and towards the Indian Ocean.
The temple stands firmly jutting into the sea on rocks with a height of about 97 meters from the sea surface. In front of the temple there is a small forest called “Alas Kekeran”, which serves as a purity temple buffer. On the waterfront, visitors can see the marine atmosphere that comfort the soul and mind. The temple, located on the rock has become one of the historical attractions because it dates back to 1489 BC, beginning with the arrival of a priest from East Java named Danghyang Dwijendra.
To be able to enter into the temple, visitors must wear a sarong and scarf that can be rented in that place to respect the religious life of the Balinese who are mostly Hindus and have a great respect for the place of their worship.
The best time to visit Uluwatu temple is in the evening, at sunset time, so they can watch the spectacular scenery. In addition visitors can also see one of the cultural attractions that pretty typical in Bali Island, namely the Kecak dance which is quite popular both domestic and abroad. This Balinese dance become one of leading cultural attractions.
Kecak dance is performed by many of the male dancers, sitting in a circle and with a certain rhythm shouting and raised both their arms. The dancers that are sitting in a circle wear a plaid cloths around their waist. Besides the dancers, there are other dancers who portray the characters of Ramayana like Rama, Shinta, Ravana, Hanuman and Sugriva. Kecak dance songs are taken from the ritual dances sanghyang that is traditional dance. Dancers will be in an trance condition, communicating with God or the spirits of the ancestors and then convey the expectations of the spirits to the society.
Unlike other Balinese dance that uses the gamelan as a musical accompaniment, Kecak dance performances are only the art of combining sounds of the mouth or shouts like “cak cak ke cak cak ke”, so this dance called The Kecak dance. The Kecak dance can be found at several places in Bali, but at Uluwatu is the most interesting to watch, because the show performed at the sunset.
Next to Pura Uluwatu, there is the famous Uluwatu beach with the cool waves that makes Uluwatu beach become a haven for the Surfer.
Uluwatu beach is suitable to be used by sports fans of surfing and almost every year is held an international surfing competition. This activity also serves to facilitate promotion, especially to foreign tourists and many countries in the world to get to know more about Indonesia that is rich in cultures.
Around the temple complex there are a bunch of monkeys. The mischievous monkeys are generally prefer to take a wide variety of items carried by the visitors. Goods which often become the target are glasses, purse, wallet or anything that can be easily taken by them.
Prambanan is the largest Hindus temple in Southeast Asia. Its location which is not far from the temple of Borobudur as if to show about the harmony between the Buddhists and Hindus in Java, not just in the past but also today. Administratively, this temple is located on the border of Central Java and Yogyakarta, 17 kilometers from the center of Yogyakarta, in the middle area that is now built a beautiful park.
The temple that by the local community is known by the name Roro Jonggrang, has a legend. Long ago there was a powerful and magical young man who wanted to marry a beautiful princess named Roro Jonggrang. The king who also the father of the Princess had forced her to marry “Bandung Bondowoso”. He is the prince of the neighboring kingdom. Roro Jonggrang did not love him but could not reject it anyway. After a long consideration, she finally gave one condition to Bandung Bondowoso to build 1000 temples and promised to marry him if her requirements could be resolved before dawn.
Roro Jonggrang requested that the work had to be completed before the rooster crowed that she thought it was impossible. But the magical Bandung Bondowoso nearly could complete the 999 temples with the help of Jinnand his strength.
Roro Jonggrang asked the women in the village to start hitting the rice, to make the chickens woke up and began to crow. Bondowoso was very disappointed with her behavior, then changed her into a stone which is now known as Prambanan Temple, while the nearby temple called Sewu Temple or a thousand temples.
Prambanan temple was built in the 9th century, dedicated to the God Shiva (the destroyer), and two at each side dedicated to the God Brahma (the creator) and God Vishnu (the keepers). The highest temple is 47 meters 5 meters higher than Borobudur temple and also among other temples in the vicinity. The foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire to show Hindu triumph in the island of Java.
Prambanan also has temple reliefs, which contains the story of Ramayana. According to experts, the relief is similar to the Ramayana story revealed through oral tradition. Another interesting relief is Kalpataru tree that the Hindu religion is considered as a tree of life, sustainability and environmental compatibility. At Prambanan, reliefs of Kalpataru trees depicted flanking the lion. The existence of this tree makes experts consider that the ninth century had wisdom to manage their environment.
Prambanan was rediscovered by a Dutch citizen named CA Lons in 1733 after hundred years neglected. This temple has been renovated and is now known as the most beautiful Hindus temple in Indonesia.
The beauty and complexity of the architecture Prambanan as a very beautiful building has been named as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1991.
Ramayana – Performing Arts at Prambanan Temple
Ramayana ballet is a dance drama, which tells the story of Ramayana, especially about Rama who is a legendary Hindus king and also can be said as the incarnation of God. This drama tells the story of Rama’s bravery.This famous drama, held at Prambanan Temple courtyard area in the form of dance. Ramayana ballet drama at Prambanan are usually held on the period of full moon to be enjoyed by visitors on various dates in that period of approximately six months. The dancers demonstrate their dancing skills to the audience in the beautiful traditional outfit.
Ramayana Dance drama at Prambanan temple is different from the original story in India, it reflects the result of adaptation with Java culture for years and it is one of the best dance performance in Indonesian.
In this show not only the music and dance are carefully prepared, lighting has also been prepared in detail. This provides more value, because the light is not a torch light only, but much light from the lamp are designed to describe the events and moods of the characters.
Prambanan Ramayana Ballet won the international award “PATA Gold Award 2012” beat 180 contestants from 79 countries in category “Heritage and Culture”, which is obtained at the annual conference of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) in 2012 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 21 April 2012.
The Borobudur Temple is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 824 BC or 9th century by Buddhist Mahayana.
This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Millions of people want to visit this buildings which included in the World Wonder Heritages. Besides being a tourist attraction, is also a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Waisak/Vesak . This is according with its name meaning “monastery in the hills”.
The founder of the Borobudur Temple was the King Samaratungga, which comes from the dynasty Syailendra. The possibility this temple was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to the story hereditary named Gunadharma.
This temple for centuries was no longer used. Then because of volcanic eruptions, most of the Borobudur Temple building, covered with volcanic soil, trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the days of Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.
In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, during the colonial era heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects in the village of Magelang Bumisegoro and because he was very interested to the history of Java, Raffles immediately ordered the HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the location of the discovery which was a hill covered with shrubs.
Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that cover the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius Raffles reported to the invention includes a few pictures. Because of that discovery, Raffles was honored as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple was continued restored in the Dutch colonial period.
After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage of Borobudur. In 1963, was decided officially, that the government of Indonesia will conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help from UNESCO. However, this restoration completely began on August 10, 1973. The new restoration process was completed in 1984. Since 1991, the temple of Borobudur set as World Heritage Site, or the World Heritage by UNESCO. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles gave the name of this temple with the name “Borobudur” , based on the true story with all evidence that are written and documented by him
Other than that, there are some other etymology folks said that the word of Borobudur came from the words: “The Buddhist”. Another explanation is : the name was derived from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word coal supposedly derived from “temple”, and the meaning of beduhur is “high”, or reminding the Balinese language meant “above”. So Borobudur meant monastery on a higher ground.
Borobudur temple which located in Magelang, Central Java, has 10 levels which consists of six levels of a square, 3 levels of a circular and a main Stupa as the peak. At each level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha inside it. Ten level of Borobudur temple describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva (Buddha philosophy) which must pass to reach the perfection to become Buddha in nirvana (heaven). This perfection is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level.
On the fourth side of the temple, there is a gate and stairs to the level above, it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. The next step then, the stone become sand, plants, insects, wild animals, pets, and reborn as a human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is become soul and eventually get into nirvana and all about those things illustrated in the reliefs and sculptures in the entire temple walls of Borobudur. Borobudur has 2670 different relief that are read clockwise. The relief illustrate a story and to read it begins and ends at the gate on the east temple as a main Gate.
This huge building is the form of giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone spliced without using cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected based on a pattern, and stacked. The stones which used approximately 55 000 cubic meters. All the stone was taken from the river around Borobudur. These stones are cut and spliced and transported to a pattern like lego games.
Borobudur temple is one the evidence the greatness and human intelligence ever in Indonesia. Borobudur temple becomes the object of cultural tourism, other than Bali and some other places in Indonesia.
Archaeological sites in the district of Gunung Padang (Mount Padang) Cianjur Regency not everyone knows. In fact, these megalithic sites, with an area of 3 ha, claimed to be the largest megalithic sites in Southeast Asia. Certainly very unfortunate if we did not know it. Cianjur Regency want to make this site as a flagship tourist destination as well as education.
To reach the site, only jeeps and similar vehicles and motorcycles which can continue up to the location of the site. Gunung Padang sites located on top of a the hill, to reach from the base must climb a steep staircase, 95 meters high, made from andesite rocks pillars which laid nearly 400 stairs.
The view over the entire hill and building of megalithic sites is amazing. In the yard of megalithic sites, the visitors will listen to the explanations from tourists guide about this site from a variety of scientific approaches, also look at of thousands andesite stones which formed the pillars, four-or five-sided arranged in such a way as to various functions.
This site estimated as an ancient cemetery. The existence of this site then reported back to the local government cultural overseers by local residents. Since then, the site has been examined in considerable depth while still leaves a variety of archaeological controversy. Archaeologists agree that the site is not a cemetery as stated by Krom (1914), that just mentioned that the site was estimated as an ancient tomb, but a place of worship.
Gunung Padang is the site located in an area geologically that have a quite active earthquake, not far from section Cimandiri, which stretches from the Gulf Pelabuhan Ratu, up to about Padalarang (districts in West Bandung regency, West Java province). If there is activation from the geological forces around the Gulf of Pelabuhan Ratu, South of West Java, then it often becomes a mediator of shocking quake.
Some of the toppled and broken menhir in area of the site and is projected to cause earthquakes. In relation to worship, this site can be built for that purpose, so that people are protected from earthquake or volcanic sources that are not far from Mount Padang. Mount Gede occupied a very strong geomantic position for the Site of Mount Padang. Mount Padang site was built to be oriented entirely to Mount Gede.