Category Archives: Borobudur

Amazing Borobudur Temple in Yogyakarta (Central Java, Indonesia)

The Borobudur Temple is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 824 BC or 9th century  by Buddhist Mahayana.

 

Borobudur temple view from northwest plateau, Central Java , Indonesia .
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata for Wikipedia
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Millions of people want to visit this buildings which included in the World Wonder Heritages. Besides being a tourist attraction, is also a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Waisak/Vesak . This is according with its name meaning “monastery in the hills”.

 

Buddist monks Praying at Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

The founder of the Borobudur Temple was the King Samaratungga, which comes from the dynasty Syailendra. The possibility this temple was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to the story hereditary named Gunadharma.

This temple for centuries was no longer used. Then because of volcanic eruptions, most of the Borobudur Temple building, covered with volcanic soil, trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the days of Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.

In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, during the colonial era  heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects  in the village of Magelang Bumisegoro and because he was very interested to the history of Java, Raffles immediately ordered the HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the location of the discovery which was a hill covered with shrubs.

Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that cover the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius Raffles reported to the invention includes a few pictures. Because of that discovery, Raffles was honored as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple was continued restored in the Dutch colonial period.

After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of  UNESCO to examine the damage of Borobudur. In 1963, was decided officially, that the government of Indonesia will conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help from UNESCO. However, this restoration completely began on August 10, 1973. The new restoration process was completed in 1984. Since 1991, the temple of Borobudur set as World Heritage Site, or the World Heritage by UNESCO.  Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles  gave the name of this temple with the name “Borobudur” , based on the true story with all evidence that are written and documented by him

 

Restoration of the memorial stone of the temple of Borobudur (with the help from Unesco)
Author : Masgatotkaca, transfered to Commons by Kenrick95.
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The first photograph Borobudur temple (1873) after the monument was cleaned from the plant, that grown in the temple. Dutch flag looked on the main stupa of the temple.
Author : en: Isidore van Kinsbergen
Public domain

 

The highest terrace after restoration. The main stupa has a tower with chattra (umbrella) stacking three.
Source : Tropenmuseum for Wikipedia
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

Other than that, there are some other etymology folks said that the word of Borobudur came from the words: “The Buddhist”. Another explanation is : the name was derived from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word coal supposedly derived from “temple”, and the meaning of beduhur is “high”, or reminding the Balinese language meant “above”. So Borobudur meant monastery on a higher ground.

Borobudur temple which located in Magelang, Central Java, has 10 levels which consists of six levels of a square, 3 levels of a circular and a main Stupa as the peak. At each level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha inside it. Ten  level of Borobudur temple describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva (Buddha philosophy) which must pass to reach the perfection to become Buddha in nirvana (heaven). This perfection is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level.

On the fourth side of the temple, there is a gate and stairs to the level above, it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. The next step then, the stone become sand, plants, insects, wild animals, pets, and reborn as a human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is become soul and eventually get into nirvana and all about those things  illustrated in the reliefs and sculptures in the entire temple walls of Borobudur. Borobudur has 2670 different relief that are read clockwise. The relief  illustrate a story and to read it begins and ends at the gate on the east temple as a main Gate.

 

Siddharta Gautama relief on the walls of the temple
Author : Gunkarta for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The murals (reliefs) on the wall of Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

This huge building is the form of  giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone spliced without using cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected based on a pattern, and stacked. The stones which used approximately 55 000 cubic meters. All the stone was taken from the river around Borobudur. These stones are cut and spliced and transported to a pattern like lego games.

Borobudur temple  is one the evidence the greatness and human intelligence ever in Indonesia. Borobudur temple becomes the object of cultural tourism, other than Bali and some other places in Indonesia.

 

Borobudur Temple Scenery
Author : Mushin for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License.

 

Buddha statue in Borobudur (Java, Indonesia)
Picture taken by Jan-Pieter Nap
GNU Free Documentation License

 

Buddha in the Stupa Borobudur
A meditative Buddha statue perform dharmachakra mudra hand gesture inside the perforated bell-shaped stupa.
Author : Gunkarta Gunawan Kartapranata
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 


Really amazing video !