Category Archives: Art

Batik cloth

Batik is the typical culture of Indonesia which has existed since the Majapahit kingdom. To further strengthen our understanding of batik, it helps us to know about the history of Indonesian batik. Batik is historically derived from the days of the ancestor, known since the seventeenth century, written and painted on palm leaves. At that time batik motif or pattern was still dominated by the shape of animals and plants, but in the history of its development, batik have evolved from painting motifs of animals and plants, turning on an abstract motif that resembles a cloud, temple reliefs, wayang, and so on.

 

Indonesian Batik

Batik Indonesia
Batik cloth
Source : Wikipedia
Maker : MartijnL
License : CC-BY-SA-3.0-nl (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Netherlands)

 

The word “batik” is derived from the combination of two Javanese words “amba”, meaning “to write”, “titik” means “point”. Batik is one way of making fabric. Moreover batik can refer to two things. The first is the technique of coloring cloth using the night to prevent staining part of the fabric. In the international literature, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing. The second is the fabric or clothing made by those technicque, including the use of certain motifs that have uniqueness. Indonesian Batik as the overall engineering, technology, and development-related motives and culture.

Through the merger of the painting with the art of decorating style clothing, batik art emerged as we know it today. The Indonesian nation that is culturally rich has led to the birth of various shades and types of traditional batik with the characteristics of their own specialization, such as batik Pekalongan, Yogyakarta, Solo (cities in Central Java) or other regions in Indonesia which patterns or motifs according to the specific region.

 

Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta) Source : own photo Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz
Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta)
Source : own photo
Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz

 

Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta Author : Thomas Bergholz Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. Attribution: Thomas Bergholz
Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta
Author : Thomas Bergholz
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license.
Attribution: Thomas Bergholz

 

Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name "Buketan" derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java. Source :Wikipedia Indonesia Maker : Bangko Gandrasta Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name “Buketan” derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java.
Source : Wikipedia Indonesia
Maker : Bangko Gandrasta
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

During development, the art of batik was imitated by the people nearest and further expanded into the work of women in the household to fill their spare time. Furthermore, batik clothes that used only by the royal family then became a popular folk clothes, both women and men.

Types of Batik Based on Technique:

  • Batik Tulis (Writing Batik) is decorated with texture and batik style using hand in its making. This type of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
  • Batik Cap  (Stamp Batik) is decorated with textures and patterns that is formed by stamp (usually made from copper). This type of batik process takes approximately 2-3 days.
  • Batik Painting is the process of making batik with a direct way to paint on a white cloth.

Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has become part of the culture of Indonesia (especially Java) since long. Javanese women in the past made their skills in batik for a living, so in the past batik work is exclusively women’s work until the invention of “Batik Cap” which allowed the men to take a part of it.

World recognized batik as one of the heritage of mankind generated by the nation of Indonesia. Recognition and awards were presented officially by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO designated Indonesian Batik as a Cultural Heritage for Humanity Oral and Intangible (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) since October 2, 2009. The recognition made ??on 28 September 2009 and official award on October 2, 2009 in Abu Dhabi.

UNESCO recognition was given primarily as an assessment of the diversity of batik which is full of deep philosophical meaning. Awards were also given for the government and people of Indonesia that has been protecting and preserving the cultural heritage from generation to generation.

 

Indonesian Batik, A Living Art

 

 

 To know more detail about batik can be found at : Batik (Wikipedia)


Amazing Borobudur Temple in Yogyakarta (Central Java, Indonesia)

The Borobudur Temple is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 824 BC or 9th century  by Buddhist Mahayana.

 

Borobudur temple view from northwest plateau, Central Java , Indonesia .
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata for Wikipedia
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Millions of people want to visit this buildings which included in the World Wonder Heritages. Besides being a tourist attraction, is also a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Waisak/Vesak . This is according with its name meaning “monastery in the hills”.

 

Buddist monks Praying at Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

The founder of the Borobudur Temple was the King Samaratungga, which comes from the dynasty Syailendra. The possibility this temple was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to the story hereditary named Gunadharma.

This temple for centuries was no longer used. Then because of volcanic eruptions, most of the Borobudur Temple building, covered with volcanic soil, trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the days of Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.

In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, during the colonial era  heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects  in the village of Magelang Bumisegoro and because he was very interested to the history of Java, Raffles immediately ordered the HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the location of the discovery which was a hill covered with shrubs.

Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that cover the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius Raffles reported to the invention includes a few pictures. Because of that discovery, Raffles was honored as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple was continued restored in the Dutch colonial period.

After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of  UNESCO to examine the damage of Borobudur. In 1963, was decided officially, that the government of Indonesia will conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help from UNESCO. However, this restoration completely began on August 10, 1973. The new restoration process was completed in 1984. Since 1991, the temple of Borobudur set as World Heritage Site, or the World Heritage by UNESCO.  Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles  gave the name of this temple with the name “Borobudur” , based on the true story with all evidence that are written and documented by him

 

Restoration of the memorial stone of the temple of Borobudur (with the help from Unesco)
Author : Masgatotkaca, transfered to Commons by Kenrick95.
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The first photograph Borobudur temple (1873) after the monument was cleaned from the plant, that grown in the temple. Dutch flag looked on the main stupa of the temple.
Author : en: Isidore van Kinsbergen
Public domain

 

The highest terrace after restoration. The main stupa has a tower with chattra (umbrella) stacking three.
Source : Tropenmuseum for Wikipedia
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

Other than that, there are some other etymology folks said that the word of Borobudur came from the words: “The Buddhist”. Another explanation is : the name was derived from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word coal supposedly derived from “temple”, and the meaning of beduhur is “high”, or reminding the Balinese language meant “above”. So Borobudur meant monastery on a higher ground.

Borobudur temple which located in Magelang, Central Java, has 10 levels which consists of six levels of a square, 3 levels of a circular and a main Stupa as the peak. At each level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha inside it. Ten  level of Borobudur temple describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva (Buddha philosophy) which must pass to reach the perfection to become Buddha in nirvana (heaven). This perfection is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level.

On the fourth side of the temple, there is a gate and stairs to the level above, it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. The next step then, the stone become sand, plants, insects, wild animals, pets, and reborn as a human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is become soul and eventually get into nirvana and all about those things  illustrated in the reliefs and sculptures in the entire temple walls of Borobudur. Borobudur has 2670 different relief that are read clockwise. The relief  illustrate a story and to read it begins and ends at the gate on the east temple as a main Gate.

 

Siddharta Gautama relief on the walls of the temple
Author : Gunkarta for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The murals (reliefs) on the wall of Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

This huge building is the form of  giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone spliced without using cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected based on a pattern, and stacked. The stones which used approximately 55 000 cubic meters. All the stone was taken from the river around Borobudur. These stones are cut and spliced and transported to a pattern like lego games.

Borobudur temple  is one the evidence the greatness and human intelligence ever in Indonesia. Borobudur temple becomes the object of cultural tourism, other than Bali and some other places in Indonesia.

 

Borobudur Temple Scenery
Author : Mushin for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License.

 

Buddha statue in Borobudur (Java, Indonesia)
Picture taken by Jan-Pieter Nap
GNU Free Documentation License

 

Buddha in the Stupa Borobudur
A meditative Buddha statue perform dharmachakra mudra hand gesture inside the perforated bell-shaped stupa.
Author : Gunkarta Gunawan Kartapranata
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 


Really amazing video !

Famous types of puppet that performed in Indonesia

There are several types of puppets in Indonesia in addition to the puppet show which originated from Indonesia, which is:

  • Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet), made of cow leather or calf, generally taking the story from the Mahabharata and Ramayana manuscript. The story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata stories prototype is played by a puppeteer. Puppet show is more popular in central and eastern Java. 

 

Wayang kulit performance, Museum Wayang. SourceOriginally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Author :Original uploader was Jpatokal at en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this file)  Released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Wayang kulit performance, Museum Wayang.
Source Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here.
Author : Original uploader was Jpatokal at en.wikipedia
Permission
(Reusing this file)
Released under the GNU Free Documentation License.

 

 

  • Wayang orang/ Wayang Wong (Puppet human), puppet is played by people, who also tells the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata. 

 

Wayang Wong (Wayang Orang) Javanese dance performance in Wayang Orang Bharata Theatre, Senen, Jakarta. Depicting the character Pandawa Lima with their guard in left, and Sri Kresna in the right. Source :Own work Author :Gunawan Kartapranata Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Wayang Wong (Wayang Orang) Javanese dance performance in Wayang Orang Bharata Theatre, Senen, Jakarta. Depicting the character Pandawa Lima with their guard in left, and Sri Kresna in the right.
Source : Own work
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

 

  • Wayang Golek (Wooden Doll Puppet) are marionette puppets often made ??of mahogany with the same performance like other puppets, but it is not only tells the story of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, but also with clown servants characters. Funny and make allusions to the government. Accompanied by gamelan music.

 

Panakawan, the friendly gestures of cepot, the red face; petruk the long noses and gareng the round nose
Source : Wikipedia
Author : Monty32
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

 

  • Wayang Klitik (Klitik puppets), puppets made of mahagony wood, constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures. Klitik name was created because of the sound generated by the friction between the puppets are made from wood. Unlike the puppet show that is similar to the dolls, puppets klitik shaped like a flat leather puppets. Klitik puppets stories taken from the cycle of stories Panji and Damarwulan. Gamelan is also used to accompany the puppet show, although different for a certain instruments. 

 

Wooden wayangpuppet of Shiva. Source :Originally from de.wikipedia Author :Original uploader was Dieter Sedlaczek at de.wikipedia Public domain
Wooden wayangpuppet of Shiva.
Source : Originally from de.wikipedia
Author : Original uploader was Dieter Sedlaczek at de.wikipedia
Public domain

 

 

  • Wayang Beber, puppets made of cloth roll and unroll the mastermind, drove it and telling scenes in the reels. Named for a puppet beber sheet (explanation) that formed the cast of characters in the story of Mahabharata and Ramayana puppet either. This puppet show is still growing in certain areas on the island of Java. 

 

The painting of Bharatayudha battle in Wayang style. Wayang Exhibition, Bentara Budaya Jakarta. Source :Wikipedia Author : Gunawan Kartapranata Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
The painting of Bharatayudha battle in Wayang style. Wayang Exhibition, Bentara Budaya Jakarta.
Source : Wikipedia
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

 

Indonesian Puppet Show in english Language:

 

More details about the types of puppet above, can be found at Wikipedia.