Category Archives: culture

“Gadang House”, The traditional house of Minang (Minangkabau) in Sumatera Island

Rumah gadang (Gadang House) is a traditional house that is the result of Minangkabau ethnic cultures who live in Bukit Barisan, along the western coast of central Sumatra island. Just as the house in the equatorial regions, rumah gadang generally built on pilings (the stage) has cavity at the bottom which is high enough so can provide fresh air especially in the summer.

 

Bukit Barisan
Bukit Barisan

 

In addition, Gadang house built lined up according to the direction of the wind from the north to the south in order to be free from the sun and wind.
Roof that is tapered is a typical architecture that distinguishes it from other tribes building in equatorial latitudes that.

 

Gadang Palace Freddy's doc.
Gadang Palace
Freddy’s doc.

 

Gadang houses have characteristic which are very distinctive. Essentially a form is quadrangle of beams that expands upward. Sharp lines and gentle curved sectional with lower middle part. Curved roofs are very sharp like buffalo horns, while the form of the house curved and  ramps like the ship hull. Roofs made from palm fiber.

 

Gadang roof Freddy's doc.
Gadang roof
Freddy’s doc.

 

If it is seen in terms of its function, Gadang houses show the adjustment to the tropical nature. Useful roof taper to release sediment on fibers that are layered, so that rain water will glide quickly on its roof.

Gadang highly exalted even considered sacred. As the venerable and considered sacred every person who come into gadang house would wash his feet first down the stairs. There is provided a wide flat rock, called “Batu Telapakan” which is also a place of water from rock called “Cibuk Meriau” and a bucket of water from the wood named “Taring Berpanto”.

Minangkabau society harmonize life in a natural, harmonious and dynamic, so that their life embraced dialectical theory which they call “bakarano bakajadian” (causal and effect), conflict and balance. Their work which menumental like rumah gadang also contains that philosophy.

 

About West Sumatera

Location of  Bukit Barisan in Sumatera Island


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More information about this house can be seen at Rumah Gadang (Wikipedia)

Batik cloth

Batik is the typical culture of Indonesia which has existed since the Majapahit kingdom. To further strengthen our understanding of batik, it helps us to know about the history of Indonesian batik. Batik is historically derived from the days of the ancestor, known since the seventeenth century, written and painted on palm leaves. At that time batik motif or pattern was still dominated by the shape of animals and plants, but in the history of its development, batik have evolved from painting motifs of animals and plants, turning on an abstract motif that resembles a cloud, temple reliefs, wayang, and so on.

 

Indonesian Batik

Batik Indonesia
Batik cloth
Source : Wikipedia
Maker : MartijnL
License : CC-BY-SA-3.0-nl (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Netherlands)

 

The word “batik” is derived from the combination of two Javanese words “amba”, meaning “to write”, “titik” means “point”. Batik is one way of making fabric. Moreover batik can refer to two things. The first is the technique of coloring cloth using the night to prevent staining part of the fabric. In the international literature, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing. The second is the fabric or clothing made by those technicque, including the use of certain motifs that have uniqueness. Indonesian Batik as the overall engineering, technology, and development-related motives and culture.

Through the merger of the painting with the art of decorating style clothing, batik art emerged as we know it today. The Indonesian nation that is culturally rich has led to the birth of various shades and types of traditional batik with the characteristics of their own specialization, such as batik Pekalongan, Yogyakarta, Solo (cities in Central Java) or other regions in Indonesia which patterns or motifs according to the specific region.

 

Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta) Source : own photo Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz
Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta)
Source : own photo
Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz

 

Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta Author : Thomas Bergholz Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. Attribution: Thomas Bergholz
Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta
Author : Thomas Bergholz
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license.
Attribution: Thomas Bergholz

 

Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name "Buketan" derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java. Source :Wikipedia Indonesia Maker : Bangko Gandrasta Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name “Buketan” derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java.
Source : Wikipedia Indonesia
Maker : Bangko Gandrasta
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

During development, the art of batik was imitated by the people nearest and further expanded into the work of women in the household to fill their spare time. Furthermore, batik clothes that used only by the royal family then became a popular folk clothes, both women and men.

Types of Batik Based on Technique:

  • Batik Tulis (Writing Batik) is decorated with texture and batik style using hand in its making. This type of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
  • Batik Cap  (Stamp Batik) is decorated with textures and patterns that is formed by stamp (usually made from copper). This type of batik process takes approximately 2-3 days.
  • Batik Painting is the process of making batik with a direct way to paint on a white cloth.

Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has become part of the culture of Indonesia (especially Java) since long. Javanese women in the past made their skills in batik for a living, so in the past batik work is exclusively women’s work until the invention of “Batik Cap” which allowed the men to take a part of it.

World recognized batik as one of the heritage of mankind generated by the nation of Indonesia. Recognition and awards were presented officially by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO designated Indonesian Batik as a Cultural Heritage for Humanity Oral and Intangible (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) since October 2, 2009. The recognition made ??on 28 September 2009 and official award on October 2, 2009 in Abu Dhabi.

UNESCO recognition was given primarily as an assessment of the diversity of batik which is full of deep philosophical meaning. Awards were also given for the government and people of Indonesia that has been protecting and preserving the cultural heritage from generation to generation.

 

Indonesian Batik, A Living Art

 

 

 To know more detail about batik can be found at : Batik (Wikipedia)


Saman Dance, one of the world cultural heritage from Indonesia

Saman dance is the dance from Gayo (Gayonese) Aceh, northern Sumatra island. Named Saman dance because it was created by a clerics named Sheikh Saman in XIV century AD from the highlands of Gayo. Saman dance is reflection of education, religion, manners, heroism, teamwork and togetherness.

 

Saman dance, from Aceh Source : id:Tari Saman Author : Fajriboy GNU Free Documentation License.
Saman dance, from Aceh
Source : id:Tari Saman
Author : Fajriboy
GNU Free Documentation License.

 

Saman dance uses two basic element movements, which are the applauses and a pat on the chest. In  Saman dance, after sometime the rhythm and movements  become faster and makes the Saman Dance more interesting.

Traditional clothing for Saman dance are shirt and trouser, hat-shaped rolls, and a scabbard (sarong) and they are colorful. Clothes have to slightly loose in order to dance freely.
And there is still sarong worn below the belly with variety kinds of belts.

Saman dance is not only popular in Indonesia but also overseas and  it is often played in foreign countries.

On November 24, 2011 UNESCO officially recognized Aceh’s traditional Saman Dance as an intangible element of world cultural heritage, which needs UNESCO’s urgent protection

The ASEAN Tourism Association (ASEANTA) named on Saman Dance as the best ASEAN cultural preservation effort at the 25th ASEANTA Awards for Excellence 2012 (Wikipedia).

 

Saman Dance – Gayonese Traditional Dance – Sumatra, Indonesia

 

Saman Dance by UNESCO

Cirebon Mask Dance (Tari Topeng Cirebon), West Java

The art of dance became one the richness cultur that is owned by Indonesia. Each region has a dance with its own uniqueness.

Mask Dance from Cirebon in West Java is a dance that is full of meaningful symbols which are expected to be understood by its audience. Symbols can be a value of leadership, love, or wisdom.

 

Mask DancerPublic domain
Mask Dancer
Public domain

 

Mask dance  was developed a lot in Cirebon in West Java. It became famous because of the expression of movements. The dancers covered their face with a mask when dancing, that is why it is called by the name Mask dance. This dance is usually performed by one or several beautiful dancers, the singers, and some men who play musical instruments.

Symbols and meaning of a Mask Dance performance are delivered through the mask colors, sum of masks, the number of gamelan players and naturally through the dance itself.

Mask Dance Movement which is played by the dancers in each performance is different, depending on the theme that will be displayed.

After some swirling movement the dancers cover the face with a cloth that contains the mask,  then put the mask on the face as a symbol that the show has begun.

A similar process is performed when the dancers change the mask with a red mask. Uniquely, along with the change of the mask, the music accompanying  will become loud. The loudest music is played when a red mask is worn by the dancers. These movements are a form of opening dance in the mask dance performances.

 

Cirebon Mask Dance

 

The one of mask dance maestro was Mimi Rasinah, an active dancer and teacher of studio art at The Mask Dance Mimi Rasinah located in the village Pekandangan, Indramayu . Since 2006 Mimi Rasinah was suffering from paralysis, but still excited to performe, dancing and teaching mask dance until the end of her life. Mimi Rasinah died in August 2010 at the age of 80 years.

 

Mask Dance Maestrothe GNU Free Documentation License ,
Mask Dance Maestro
the GNU Free Documentation License

 

Rasinah Topeng Cirebon (Cirebon Mask) Documentary

 

Location of Cirebon, West Java


Lihat Peta Lebih Besar

Various Mask Dance information can be found at wikipedia

 

Cemetery Trunyan, unique burial customs in Bali Island Indonesia

Terunyan is a village located in the district of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Batur Lake, Bali, Indonesia. In this area there are traditional funerall that are quite unique. Residents who had been died were burried in the great stone which has 7 pieces cavity.

 

Batur Volcano and Lake, Lesser Sunda Islands, IndonesiaAuthor : TropicaLiving Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Batur Volcano and Lake, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Author : TropicaLiving
Licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

The body is only fenced by a sufficiently woven bamboo. Uniquely after days though not embalmed, the bodies are not spreading a foul smell.

Custom village of  Terunyan is set procedure to bury their communities. In this village there are three  graves (sema) that are intended for three different kinds of deaths.

When one Trunyan resident died in natural way, the body will be covered with a white cloth, consecrated, and then laid without buried under a big tree called Taru Menyan (incent), at the location that is called Sema Wayah . However, if the cause of death is not natural, such as accident, suicide, or murdered, the  body will be placed in a location called Sema Bantas. Meanwhile, to bury babies and young children, or people who’ve grown but not married, will be placed at Sema Muda .

 

Trunyan, Kintamani, Bangli, Bali, IndonesiaGNU Free Documentation License .
Trunyan, Kintamani, Bangli, Bali, Indonesia
GNU Free Documentation License .

 

Explanation why the bodies were placed with neat in the grave odorless, even naturally buried and still occur decomposition of the corpses, it is caused by the Taru Menyan tree (Taru Incense Tree), which can release fragrance and is able to neutralize foul smell of corpses. Taru means fragrant incense. The Taru incense tree only grows in this area then known as a  Tarumenyan and more famous by the name Terunyan that is believed to be the origin of the village name. (Wikipedia)

In cemetery Trunyan, there are boards “Welcome to cemetery Trunyan Village”. Thereafter through the board then you will come across a small gate and the stately trees namely Trunyan trees.

The dead bodies there are just laid and covered in white cloth, and the bodies of which are visible only the legs and heads, fenced with woven bamboo that is plugged in the form of cone. The Wonders of nature in there is the dead bodies not cause a foul smell and also safe from insects such as flies, worms, and other activities as we met in the flesh rotting.

Trunyan Village, also known as a Fragrant Wood Village, means Village of Fragrant Tree (Nyan Tree). So Terunyan tree means the fragrant tree. Local people believe that the Trunyan tree can suck up odor corpses in the cemetery.

Not everyone can be buried in the cemetery of Trunyan. The Trunyan cemetary is devoted only to people who are considered death in an normal condition (clean) and had already married, but although the death is normal, but not yet married then it should not be buried in the cemetery of Trunyan, so also the death due to accident and sickness then it also not allowed.

There were only 11 graves used for 11 bodies, if there will be a new body to be buried, then the old body will be replaced with a new body, and the old body will be moved to another place but still in the cemetery area.

Belongings of the dead also saved around their buried place.

 

Trunyan Village in Bali

 


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The uniqueness of Maluku islands – East Indonesia

The Maluku Islands stretch from the Island of Halmahera in the north to the south of the Far East. Maluku is a region which is blessed not only because of the wealth of beautiful natural but also the Maluku (Moluccas) had always been known with honest and courageous character people.

There are many customs, arts and culture of Maluku, which is not known by many people. One of the traditional events that has been made are “PUKUL SAPU LIDI”, (Beaten by Broom stick),  implemented by the King of Mamala in Ambon – Maluku, where the event is held in every 7 (seven) days after the Day of the Great Islamic “Eid”.

 

Beaten by broom sticksFOTO ANTARA/Jimmy Ayal/ed/09.
Beaten by broom sticks
FOTO ANTARA/Jimmy Ayal/ed/09.

 

This ceremony includes the extreme events. In this ceremony, each participant will be whipping up the other participants alternately using sticks (Lidi) from palm tree, that has a length 1, 52 meters, on one condition that it should not be hit into the face or a vital part of the opponent.

The whole body of participants are bruised and bleed, but they do not look in pain. Whip injuries can even be cured quickly by using traditional ingredients made ??with coconut oil so it dries quickly and the wound healed.

 

Playing beaten broomcentroone.com
Playing beaten broom
centroone.com

 

This event has been running since a few hundred years ago in this area, so that almost all the people around the island of Ambon and foreign travelers who know the tradition are definitely attend the event and watch this show.

 

Attractions of broom stick beaten

 

Besides the tradition of the broom, there is another tradition that is often called “BAMBO GILA” (Crazy Bamboo), which is known by the people of Maluku and other parts of the community where the tradition of BAMBOO GILA is known is derived from the Moluccas, but there are still many society from other areas that still dont not know about it.

 

Crazy Bamboo AttractionKompas.com By : Anom manik agung
Crazy Bamboo Attraction
Kompas.com
By : Anom manik agung

 

Prepared first a piece of bamboo with a length about 2.5 meters and diameter of 8 cm before the game starts,

After giving a spell on the bamboo, the handler then shouted “crazy, crazy, crazy.” Attraction crazy bamboo began. The dancers will move swiftly, following the movement of wild bamboo. In fact, the player’s body will be swayed even fell up, because wild movement of the crazy bamboo. They will make a series of movements, and linking their fingers to each other with agility of leg movements that is included walking, jumping and running following the sound of dynamic musics. Attraction crazy bamboo will end with the players which are fall unconscious in the show arena. The unique of this show, magical power of bamboo does not go away before being fed fires.

 

Crazy Bamboo AttractionFoto: ANTARA/ Fanny Octavianus
Crazy Bamboo Attraction
Foto: ANTARA/ Fanny Octavianus

 

Attractions of Crazy Bamboo

 

Maluku Islands

 

Location of Maluku Islands-East Indonesia


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Mentawai tribes, ancient tribes which are Isolated from Sumatra Island Indonesia

Mentawai tribes are a group of people who live and settle in the Mentawai islands of West Sumatra. Until now Mentawai cultures relatively still original, because they are  isolated from the mainland of Sumatra and have not been influenced by other cultures.

 

Mentawai men displaying a traditional greeting.
Source : http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl
Author : Christiaan Benjamin Nieuwenhuis
Public domain

 

Mentawai Islands are located in West Sumatra, composed from the island of Siberut, Sipora, North Pagai and South Pagai. Siberut Island is the largest but less in the population compare with the three other islands. Communication and transport problem caused Siberut Island mildly retarded in development. Mentawai Islands which separated from the mainland of Sumatra are estimated since 500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene age by rising sea levels. Since then the islands are isolated.

Siberut is becoming increasingly popular as an area to visit the ancient cultures. It is well known for its virgin rainforest, inhabited by a number of animal species which is not found anywhere else in the world, among them rare monkey species. Beautiful coral reefs are found offshore.

Siberut is only a relative small island and has the internal variation in language, culture in life style and in recourses are substantial. There is no clear indication of when man first arrived on Siberut, but anthropologist suggest that the bataks of the north Sumatra that is first settled on the island several years ago. In many ways, the people of  Siberut are the most ancient people among people  in Indonesia.

Most of traditional Mentawai people live in the inland, along the banks of the river in the upstream. The main food is Sago, which grows in the swamps of nature and also create their own swamp by retaining water in the root networks, when they want to plant on the flat land, but  every time they cut down the sago tree to be processed into food, they will replace it with a new sago trees. Fish, shrimp and pork are the most common source of protein that they eat.

From the first, Mentawai tribes always apply to live integrated with nature. Destroy nature and hunt wild is believed to bring disaster for the life of the Mentawai tribes.

Simplicity of life the Mentawai tribes can be seen from the way they dress. In general, clothes of  them still traditional. Mentawai men still wearing “kabit” which cover lower body, made of wood skin,  while the upper body was left naked without wearing a piece of cloth.

Another case with the women, to cover the lower body, they dangle a banana leaf midrib to form like a skirt. While for the the upper body, they knit up palm leaf shaped like a shirt. If there Mentawai tribes who wear fabric glove or clothes, there were only a few people.

 

Mentawai people (Wikipedia)

 

The Tribes in Mentawai islands are also famous because of their tattoo and they called it Titi. Titi is one part of artistic expression and the symbolic status of the Mentawai tribes.

Previously tattoos was popular among adult men and women of Mentawai. This time only a small Mentawai tribes which were tattooed. Some of them can be found in the interior of the island of Siberut.

Needles that are used are made from animal bone or sharpened wood  and would hit it into the body so that it will create the lines that are the main tattoo motive of Mentawai tribe. Colorants that is used comes from charcoal which is stuck on crock. Usually in making tattoos is started from hands, arms, legs and body. For several days, the newly tattooed skin will swell and bleed.

Reputedly, Mentawai tattoos are included the oldest tattoo art in the world, even older than the Egyptian tattoos.

 

Mentawai people

 

Mentawai Tribe Tatoos

 

Mentawai Tattoo Revival

 

 

Mentawai Islands Regency – Indonesia


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“Asmat”, the famous Papua tribe

Asmat is the name of the largest and most famous tribe among the many tribes in Papua, Irian Jaya, East Indonesia.  Irian Jaya or Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, located in the central part of of Papua Island or the eastern part of West New Guinea (Irian Jaya). Eastern parts is the Country of Papua New Guinea or East New Guinea.

One of the things that made the Asmat tribe well known is traditional wood carving that is very typical.

 

An Asmat woodcarver
Source : Own work
Author : Edi Wibowo
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

 

Some ornaments / motifs that are often used and the main theme in the process of carving statues that made by the Asmat tribe is taken from the theme of their tribal ancestors.

Carving for Asmat tribe could be a link between the present life with the life of their ancestors. In each carving contained the image and appreciation for their ancestors that is loaded with Asmat tribe greatness.

Sculptures and carving are generally made without sketches. For Asmat tribe, when the statues was carved was a time when they communicate with the ancestors in the other world.

Often also found ornaments / other motif that is similar to the boat, which is they believe as a symbol of the boat that brings the ancestor soul in the another world. For the native Amat tribe, wood carving is a manifestation of the way they perform the ritual to remember the souls of the ancestors.

 

Asmat Tribe Papua

 

Asmat tribe spreads out and inhabit the area, around the shores of the sea and mountains Arafuru Jayawijaya. With a fairly heavy conditions, considering the area is occupied, wilderness, in the life of Asmat tribe, the stone that we usually see on the streets was very valuable to them. In fact, the stones can be used as a dowry.

All of that is because Asmat tribe residence shape the swamps, so it is difficult to find a stone which is very useful for them to make axes, hammers, and so on.

Asmat population in general have a typical physical characteristics, black and curly-haired. Their body are quite high. The average height of the Asmat women are around 162 cm and height of men can reach till  172 cm.

Asmat tribe has a very simple way to makeup themselves. They only need the red soil to produce a red color. White color is made from the clamshells that have been mashed, whereas the black color they produce from the wood charcoal that is mashed. Is quite simple to use it,  only by mixing it with a little water and then the dye was able to use for coloring the body.

The lifestyle of indigenous Asmat people  is that they feel they are a part of nature, that is why they are very respectful and keep the surrounding of nature. Even the trees around where they live are considered to be a picture of  themself. The trunk describes arms, fruit describes the head and the roots describe their feet.

Asmat people daily work surrounding environment. To find food is by hunting and gardening, which still uses traditional methods and simple. The main food of Asmat people is sagu/ Sago and special dishes for them is sagu worm (the larvae of the sago palm weevil), but everyday they just grilling fish or meat of animals from the hunt.

 

Asmat people preparing sagu/ sago

 

Asmat Papua fishing

 

 More detail about Asmat tribe can be found at : 

Asmat people (Wikipedia)

 

Papua, Irian Island, East Indonesia, location of Asmat Tribe


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“Legong Dance”, one of the amazing traditional dances from the island of Bali Indonesia.

Cultural and creative arts in Bali are extremely diverse, one of them is the art of dance and from various dances that exist in Bali,  Legong dance is one of the dances that are worth to be watched. This dance is a Balinese cultural heritage that has undergone many developments.

Legong Dance in Bali culture is included in the type of classical dance, which at the beginning of its development originated from the royal palace in Bali. The dance was once only enjoyed by the noble families in their neighborhood in the palace as a dance entertainment. The dancers who have been asked to dance in front of the king will certainly feel a great pleasure, because not everyone is allowed to enter the palace.

 

Bali Legong Dance
Source : The work itself
Maker : Yves Picq http://veton.picq.fr
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The use of “Legong” word in the dance is a combination of the word ‘leg’ and ‘gong’. The word of ‘leg’ means flexibility and dynamically as the depiction of the dance movement that is performed by female dancers and “gong” means gamelan Balinese gamelan [1] as a musical instrument that accompanies this dance.

Explanation about Legong Dance [2]

 

Balinese dancer
Source : Own work
Author : Yves Picq http://veton.picq.fr
GNU Free Documentation License

 

Awesome Legong Dance 

 

Balinese Dancers in Ubud Bali

Balinese Dancers Ubud Bali

References and further Information

  1. Balinese gamelan (Wikipedia)
  2. Legong Dance (Wikipedia)

Kuda Lumping, traditional dance (trance)

Kuda Lumping (Lumping horse) is a traditional art performances that uses the power of magic with the hobbyhorse form as a  main character, made of buffalo or cow leather that has been dried or made of woven bamboo (Java: plaited bamboo) which are given motif or decoration and made like a horse form. Kuda Lumping is as a hobbyhorse that is no more than a cutout of a horse drawing was given circular rope from the head to tail and later will be ridden by tying the rope on the dancers shoulder.

 

Kuda Lumping ( Lumping Horse) was performed on Malioboro street, Yogyakarta, during a festival.
Maker : Gunkarta Gunawan Kartapranata
GNU Free Documentation License .

 

The peak of Kuda Lumping show is when the dancers were drunk, would eat anything, including the dangerous and unusual eaten by humans (eg shard / broken glass and grass) and behave like animals (eg snakes and monkeys). Kuda Lumping Art is not just entertaining, but more than a show of skill magic power.

The art of Kuda Lumping is derived from Ponorogo region in East Java, Indonesia. This art then spread to several areas in Java, especially Banten where the magic tradition has grown. DEBUS art in Banten is clearly demonstrates skill in using the power of magic players therefore Kuda Lumping art scattered in areas where Debus art lives and become an integral part of the Banten art community. In the area of Banten, Kuda lumping often also called  Kuda Kepang (braid horse).

Kuda Lumping players ranged from 12 to 20 people, they are composed of :

The handler, that has magical powers, his function as a leader, director, and recited spells to make the the riders get drunk and make them behave like animals. A bundle of grass and shards of glass will be provided as a food for Kuda Lumping dancers.

 

Kuda lumping player eating glass
Places acrobatics and magical Kuda Lumping on page Jakarta History Museum. The main viewer takes glass lamp.
GNU Free Documentation License

 

The whip is used by the handler to direct the show, pretending to whip hobbyhorse, but directed into the empty space.

The show accompanied by traditional music and songs.