Category Archives: About Java

The Magnificence of Mount Bromo in Java Island

As one of the most beautiful mountain in the island of Java, Mount Bromo is so crowded with tourists. There, you can see the desert that is so exotic, cool mountain atmosphere with a thick fog, a beautiful crater and sunrise views that so stunning.


The Tengger massif in Java, Indonesia, at sunrise, showing the volcanoes Mt. Bromo (large crater, smoking) and Mt. Semeru (background, smoking). The early morning fog surrounds the peaks, covering a plain of finest volcanic ashes. Source : Thomas Hirsch Author : Thomas Hirsch  GNU Free Documentation License
The Tengger massif in Java, Indonesia, at sunrise, showing the volcanoes Mt. Bromo (large crater, smoking) and Mt. Semeru (background, smoking). The early morning fog surrounds the peaks, covering a plain of finest volcanic ashes.
Source : Thomas Hirsch
Author : Thomas Hirsch
GNU Free Documentation License


Bromo name is taken from the word Brahma, the supreme god of Hindus. Mount Bromo is a volcano that still active and a very famous as a tourist attraction in Indonesia. Bromo has a height of 2,392 meters above sea level, and is located in 4 regions in East Java, namely, Pasuruan, Lumajang, Probolinggo and Malang.

Mount Bromo has a crater with a diameter of about 800 meters (north-south) and approximately 600 meters (east-west). While the danger area, a circle with a radius of 4 km from the central crater of Bromo.

Bromo incorporated in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS) which includes Mount Bromo. TNBTS also includes Tengger tribe villages and the highest mountain in the island of Java, Mount Semeru.

If you come during the summer, you can see the sunrise and views of the mountains that wide stretches in the bright weather. The best time to come to Bromo is around the month of June to October.

Mount Bromo physical shape mesh between valleys and canyons with a caldera or a sea of ??sand, covering an area of ??10 square kilometers and there is a temple in the middle. To reach the crater of Mount Bromo and sea sand is not easy. If  not strong enough to climb by foot, we can rent horses with the price Rp 70,000 (7$).


Walking on the edge of Gunung Bromo volcano.  Author : Harri J from Doha ??????, Qatar GNU Free Documentation License.
Walking on the edge of Gunung Bromo volcano.
Author : Harri J from Doha ??????, Qatar
GNU Free Documentation License.


After that we had to climb 250 stairs, but do not worry, all the tiredness will pay off when it reached the peak. Seeing the beauty of the crater of Mount Bromo that secrete smoke and vast desert while waiting for the sunrise if we climb at dawn would look so beautiful. Moreover natural phenomenon Bromo is constantly extraordinary changing.

Once a year, Tengger residents of Bromo mountain, do Kasodo ceremony. The ceremony was held at the temple is located at the northern foot of Mount Bromo and continues up to the top of the mountain. Ceremony is held  every full moon on the 14th or 15 months Kasodo (tenth) according to the Javanese calendar.

Prepare enough warm clothes and head cap much needed to reduce the cold temperatures, considering the temperature there can reach 0 degrees Celsius.


Bromo eruption Source :
Bromo eruption
Source :


Even several times mount Bromo is erupted, the Center for Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center said people on the mountain slopes are safe and do not need to evacuate.

Mount Bromo has different characteristics to other volcanoes. This mountain has a low volcanic, would only issue a sands and ashes.


Mount Bromo Eruption


Legend of Mount Bromo

Ancient legend said there was a girl that lived in the affluent village near Mount Bromo, her name is Rara Anteng. She’s very pretty, friendly, humble, and diligent. She married a young man, Jaka Seger.

Jaka Seger and Rara Anteng were happy couple but they did not have a child. Therefore they pray to God. Soon an old man appeared and said, “you will have twenty-five children, but you have to sacrifice your son most small / young”.

Several months later Rara Anteng given gift of a baby. They were very happy. After a few years they  had twenty-five children. The youngest named Warih Kusuma.

One night Jaka Seger remember the message of the old man and talk to his wife. After that they head into the crater of Mount Bromo to pray to God because they can not sacrifice Warih Kusuma. Instantly the sky became dark and they heard the sound of thunder. They ran away from the crater.

Once the lightning had subsided, Warih Kusuma disappeared. They heard the sound of Warih Kusuma from inside crater, “Please let me go, but  give offerings every year”.

Finally Jaka Seger and Rara Anteng let Warih Kusuma go. Tengger name is taken from Jaka Tengger and Rara Anteng , since then Tengger residents always presents of livestock and agricultural produce at the Kasodo ceremony.


Bromo Mountain


Location of Mount Bromo

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Batik cloth

Batik is the typical culture of Indonesia which has existed since the Majapahit kingdom. To further strengthen our understanding of batik, it helps us to know about the history of Indonesian batik. Batik is historically derived from the days of the ancestor, known since the seventeenth century, written and painted on palm leaves. At that time batik motif or pattern was still dominated by the shape of animals and plants, but in the history of its development, batik have evolved from painting motifs of animals and plants, turning on an abstract motif that resembles a cloud, temple reliefs, wayang, and so on.


Indonesian Batik

Batik Indonesia
Batik cloth
Source : Wikipedia
Maker : MartijnL
License : CC-BY-SA-3.0-nl (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Netherlands)


The word “batik” is derived from the combination of two Javanese words “amba”, meaning “to write”, “titik” means “point”. Batik is one way of making fabric. Moreover batik can refer to two things. The first is the technique of coloring cloth using the night to prevent staining part of the fabric. In the international literature, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing. The second is the fabric or clothing made by those technicque, including the use of certain motifs that have uniqueness. Indonesian Batik as the overall engineering, technology, and development-related motives and culture.

Through the merger of the painting with the art of decorating style clothing, batik art emerged as we know it today. The Indonesian nation that is culturally rich has led to the birth of various shades and types of traditional batik with the characteristics of their own specialization, such as batik Pekalongan, Yogyakarta, Solo (cities in Central Java) or other regions in Indonesia which patterns or motifs according to the specific region.


Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta) Source : own photo Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz
Traditional batik from Solo (Surakarta)
Source : own photo
Author or copyright holder : Thomas Bergholz


Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta Author : Thomas Bergholz Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license. Attribution: Thomas Bergholz
Traditional Batik from Yogyakarta
Author : Thomas Bergholz
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany license.
Attribution: Thomas Bergholz


Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name "Buketan" derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java. Source :Wikipedia Indonesia Maker : Bangko Gandrasta Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Batik Buketan from Pekalongan, Central Java. The name “Buketan” derived from European flower bouquet and floral motifs European Clearly displayed. The Buketan Batik originated during Dutch East Indies colonial era of Java.
Source : Wikipedia Indonesia
Maker : Bangko Gandrasta
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


During development, the art of batik was imitated by the people nearest and further expanded into the work of women in the household to fill their spare time. Furthermore, batik clothes that used only by the royal family then became a popular folk clothes, both women and men.

Types of Batik Based on Technique:

  • Batik Tulis (Writing Batik) is decorated with texture and batik style using hand in its making. This type of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
  • Batik Cap  (Stamp Batik) is decorated with textures and patterns that is formed by stamp (usually made from copper). This type of batik process takes approximately 2-3 days.
  • Batik Painting is the process of making batik with a direct way to paint on a white cloth.

Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has become part of the culture of Indonesia (especially Java) since long. Javanese women in the past made their skills in batik for a living, so in the past batik work is exclusively women’s work until the invention of “Batik Cap” which allowed the men to take a part of it.

World recognized batik as one of the heritage of mankind generated by the nation of Indonesia. Recognition and awards were presented officially by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO designated Indonesian Batik as a Cultural Heritage for Humanity Oral and Intangible (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) since October 2, 2009. The recognition made ??on 28 September 2009 and official award on October 2, 2009 in Abu Dhabi.

UNESCO recognition was given primarily as an assessment of the diversity of batik which is full of deep philosophical meaning. Awards were also given for the government and people of Indonesia that has been protecting and preserving the cultural heritage from generation to generation.


Indonesian Batik, A Living Art



 To know more detail about batik can be found at : Batik (Wikipedia)

Cirebon Mask Dance (Tari Topeng Cirebon), West Java

The art of dance became one the richness cultur that is owned by Indonesia. Each region has a dance with its own uniqueness.

Mask Dance from Cirebon in West Java is a dance that is full of meaningful symbols which are expected to be understood by its audience. Symbols can be a value of leadership, love, or wisdom.


Mask DancerPublic domain
Mask Dancer
Public domain


Mask dance  was developed a lot in Cirebon in West Java. It became famous because of the expression of movements. The dancers covered their face with a mask when dancing, that is why it is called by the name Mask dance. This dance is usually performed by one or several beautiful dancers, the singers, and some men who play musical instruments.

Symbols and meaning of a Mask Dance performance are delivered through the mask colors, sum of masks, the number of gamelan players and naturally through the dance itself.

Mask Dance Movement which is played by the dancers in each performance is different, depending on the theme that will be displayed.

After some swirling movement the dancers cover the face with a cloth that contains the mask,  then put the mask on the face as a symbol that the show has begun.

A similar process is performed when the dancers change the mask with a red mask. Uniquely, along with the change of the mask, the music accompanying  will become loud. The loudest music is played when a red mask is worn by the dancers. These movements are a form of opening dance in the mask dance performances.


Cirebon Mask Dance


The one of mask dance maestro was Mimi Rasinah, an active dancer and teacher of studio art at The Mask Dance Mimi Rasinah located in the village Pekandangan, Indramayu . Since 2006 Mimi Rasinah was suffering from paralysis, but still excited to performe, dancing and teaching mask dance until the end of her life. Mimi Rasinah died in August 2010 at the age of 80 years.


Mask Dance Maestrothe GNU Free Documentation License ,
Mask Dance Maestro
the GNU Free Documentation License


Rasinah Topeng Cirebon (Cirebon Mask) Documentary


Location of Cirebon, West Java

Lihat Peta Lebih Besar

Various Mask Dance information can be found at wikipedia


“Sidoarjo mud flow” Human error or disaster ?

Tragedy ‘Lapindo Mud’ began on May 27, 2006. Originally mud was spurt in the rice field close to the gas drilling owned by Lapindo Brantas contractor.

Lapindo Brantas is one of the Production Sharing Contract appointed by BP-Oil and Gas to make the process of drilling for oil and gas. Currently, Lapindo has a 50% participating interest in the area of Brantas, East Java.

Lapindo mudflow tragedy in Porong, Sidoarjo enters the sixth year. However, completion of some problems that result from it still leaves a a question mark. Bursts are still visible. Payment of compensation to the victim has not been completed. Explained by the Sidoarjo Mud Mitigation Agency (BPLS), the average volume of mud that burst around 10 to 15 thousand cubic meters per day.


Underground Blowout (wild bursts underground)


The life of residents in the area has changed dramatically since the mud flooded the village. Six years mud problem caused social impacts.


Villages were flooded Kedungbendo Renokenongo and mud, two villages located in the north of the mudflow.


The number of diseases has been increasing since 2006. Patients with respiratory tract infections which in 2005 were 24.719 people, in 2009 increased rapidly to 52.543 people. Additionally, gastritis which in 2005 amounted to 7416 people in 2009 increased to three-fold to 22.189 patients.

On the issue of education, after 33 schools were drowned by mud, to date not a single replacement school built by the government.


Home sunk by mud flow
Maker : Original uploader was Arifhidayat at en.wikipedia
License ( Reusing this file ) Released under the GNU Free Documentation License .


Started on April 16, 2011, more than 2,000 people, were alternately blockaded mud embankments in Porong, Sidoarjo.

East Java Government asks citizens to be wary of mud levees. Currently all of the authority against all the possibilities that exist in mud levees become a burden Sidoarjo Mud Mitigation Agency (BPLS). They raised the levees to anticipate the occurrence of overflow from the mud ponds that may exceed the height of levees which is only eleven feet.

It is done by using three heavy equipment that are stationed on mud levees. In addition to raise the levees, BPLS is also clog in the mud ponds to drain the mud to another location that is still possible.


The mudlevel is much lower at That Time and you can see tractors trying to somehow help the problem. In the background you can see the pen Where the mud is flowing out.
This file is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike terms 2.5 Generic


Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights considered that the Lapindo mudflow case in Sidoarjo, East Java is not purely a natural disaster, there was the human error was behind the disaster.

Is the fault of drilling by PT Lapindo Brantas or because of the earthquake in Yogyakarta? Lapindo insist that the disaster was caused by the earthquake that occurred 280 kilometers from that place two days earlier.

In international forums, Richard Davies, a geology from Durham University, and Mark Tingay from Adelaide University, writing in the scientific journal stated his opinion, that drilling was a factors cause of the mudflow that has drowned several villages in Sidoarjo, while Adriano Mazzini expert geology from the Oslo University, argued contrary, that the earthquake that is activated Watukosek fracture, which crosses Sidoarjo and caused eruptions from the volcano.

To commemorate the five-year bursts, Humanitus Foundation-governmental organizations, non-political and non-religious-based in Australia and the Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency (BPLS) held an international symposium on May 25 to 26, 2011. On the first day, 10 speakers from abroad and four speakers from within the country as well as the participants review the location the crater of bursts

Around the crater, the committee put up the flags of countries that have conducted research in the area of Sidoarjo mud, including the UK, Australia, America, Russia, Japan, and Norway. Speakers and organizers did a photo together at the location of bursts and the symposium arena.


Satellite Imagery of Sidoarjo before and Effective Sidoarjo mud flow
Source : From NASA Website . Uploaded from wikipedia.en by User : TCY
Author : NASA


More detailed information can be found at :  Sidoarjo mud flow (Wikipedia)


Location of the mud (Porong – Sidoarjo) East Java Indonesia

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Kuda Lumping, traditional dance (trance)

Kuda Lumping (Lumping horse) is a traditional art performances that uses the power of magic with the hobbyhorse form as a  main character, made of buffalo or cow leather that has been dried or made of woven bamboo (Java: plaited bamboo) which are given motif or decoration and made like a horse form. Kuda Lumping is as a hobbyhorse that is no more than a cutout of a horse drawing was given circular rope from the head to tail and later will be ridden by tying the rope on the dancers shoulder.


Kuda Lumping ( Lumping Horse) was performed on Malioboro street, Yogyakarta, during a festival.
Maker : Gunkarta Gunawan Kartapranata
GNU Free Documentation License .


The peak of Kuda Lumping show is when the dancers were drunk, would eat anything, including the dangerous and unusual eaten by humans (eg shard / broken glass and grass) and behave like animals (eg snakes and monkeys). Kuda Lumping Art is not just entertaining, but more than a show of skill magic power.

The art of Kuda Lumping is derived from Ponorogo region in East Java, Indonesia. This art then spread to several areas in Java, especially Banten where the magic tradition has grown. DEBUS art in Banten is clearly demonstrates skill in using the power of magic players therefore Kuda Lumping art scattered in areas where Debus art lives and become an integral part of the Banten art community. In the area of Banten, Kuda lumping often also called  Kuda Kepang (braid horse).

Kuda Lumping players ranged from 12 to 20 people, they are composed of :

The handler, that has magical powers, his function as a leader, director, and recited spells to make the the riders get drunk and make them behave like animals. A bundle of grass and shards of glass will be provided as a food for Kuda Lumping dancers.


Kuda lumping player eating glass
Places acrobatics and magical Kuda Lumping on page Jakarta History Museum. The main viewer takes glass lamp.
GNU Free Documentation License


The whip is used by the handler to direct the show, pretending to whip hobbyhorse, but directed into the empty space.

The show accompanied by traditional music and songs.



Dangerous Attraction, called “Debus” !

Debus is known as a martial art typical from Banten, West Java, Indonesia, still very strong in martial arts movements and use of weapons. Art of Banten Debus is widely used and focuses on a immune of the person against sharp objects. Almost all native Banten learn martial arts, furthermore some learning Debus and some not.


One of Debus attractions
Images Galery


Debus was derived from the word translucent. Debus Art has grown and evolved since hundreds of years ago, along with the development of Islamic religion in Banten. In the beginning this art has a function as deployment of religion, but in the Dutch colonial period, this martial art is used to raise the spirit of the warrior and banten people against Dutch colonialism, because at that time the power between both side is not balanced, the Dutch have a very complete weapons and powerful and continue to urge warriors and people of banten that only have heritage martial arts as a weapons and they fought by guerrilla way.

Debus in the Arabic language which means sharp weapon made from iron, has a pointy end and a slightly rounded shape. With this tool Debus players be injured, but usually can not be penetrated although the players of Debus was beaten many times by others. Immune attractions that are showcased such as piercing the stomach with a sharp object or a spear, slicing the body by a machete until injured and uninjured, eat fire, insert a long needle into the tongue, skin, cheeks until translucent and not injured. Slicing limbs until wounded and bleeding but can be cured at once, flushing the body by liquid chemicals until the clothes on the body crushed, chewing glass / glass flake, burning the body and many more attractions that they do.


Debus Attraction
GNU Free Documentation License


The requirements to do this attraction is not easy. Before the performance, the players have to do ritual things that is given by their teachers, usually 1-2 weeks before the ritual performed.

In addition, they are also required to have strong faith and must believe to Islamic teaching (their religion). Taboos for Debus players are : not allowed to drink alcohol, gambling, playing a woman, or stealing, and players also should be sure and do not hesitate in carrying out the action, the violations committed by a player can be very dangerous for them.

At this time many Debus warriors living in the village of Walantaka, District Walantaka, Serang regency, West Java, Indonesia. It is unfortunate that the existence of Debus become less, because the youth prefer to seek another livelihoods, and because the attraction is also quite a dangerous to do, some of Debus players get hurt due to lack of exercise. Therefore the cultural heritage is nearly gone. Previously, we could see the attraction of Debus in many areas of Banten, but now attraction Debus only exist in particular event. So not every day we can see the attraction. Cultural heritage which is displaced by the change of time.


Heavy mask from spiritual art “Reog Ponorogo”

Indonesia is rich in different cultures, but the lack of attention by the upper class society or government, culture in Indonesia will gradually disappear, because it will be eliminated by a foreign culture that came into Indonesia. Indonesian nation should really filter foreign culture that goes into Indonesia.

From the cultural diversity in Indonesia, one of them is Reog Ponorogo. Reog is one of Indonesian national culture that still exist and continue to be developed so that the culture can be preserved and as an invaluable heritage.


Reog dancers in Ponorogo, ca. 1920.
Source : Tropenmuseum
Author : Unknown


Reog is one of the cultural arts that originated from Eastern Java Indonesia that is still very strong with powerful mystical thing. Ponorogo as a city that is known by the origin of  Reog Ponorogo places have a variety of objects and tourist attraction. Of course the main attraction is Reog itself. However, as the Cultural Arts Reog hometown, it was not every day we can see the traditional art performances.


Reog Ponorogo Indonesia
Reog dancer, Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia
Source : en.wp
Author : User:Chezumar
Lisensi Dokumentasi Bebas GNU


The art is well known in Indonesia and abroad. Each year the National Reog Festival held in conjunction with the anniversary of Ponorogo regency. Reog is also performed on the full moon night in the square “Paseban Ponorogo”.

In the show Reog displayed in the form of a lion’s head mask known as “Singa Barong” (Lion Barong), king of  forest, which became a symbol to describe the Powerful king , and above it is plugged in peacock feathers to resemble a giant fan which symbolizes the strong power and influence. Weight of mask can reach 50-60 kg. This heavy mask carried by the dancers with their teeth. The ability to bring this mask is obtained by heavy exercise, also believed to be obtained by spiritual practices like fasting and penance.

Malaysia claims Reog Ponorogo

Having failed to claim some cultures of  Indonesia, Malaysia tried to claim  Reog Ponorogo as their culture.
If art of  Wayang which they are claimed not be renamed, but about  Reog because there are names  Ponorogo district, the name was changed became Barongan Dance, though Reog actually is not a dragon form like Barongsai but a form of tigers and peacocks.


Barongan Dance Malaysia
Taken from the art sites Malaysia Ministry
Public Domain


Detailed information can be found at : REOG (Wikipedia)


Rhinos nearly extinct!

According to the Head of Public Relations of the Ministry of Forestry Sumarto, Indonesia has two types of rhinos, the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and the Javanese rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Both Indonesian rhino-types are categorized as critically endangered because its population has decreased dramatically in the last three decades.


Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus) shown in the London Zoo from march 1874 until january 1885. It was captured in Jakarta.
Source : Zoonooz
Author : T.Dixon. The Zoological Society of London
Public domain


A photo of a young but dead Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon, the hunter is Charles te Mechelen.
Source : Rhino Resource Center
Author : Charles te Mechelen


The population of rhinos in Indonesia is nearly extinct. In order to maintain the existence of animals that belong to Indonesia, Javanese and Sumatran rhinos, various efforts were made.
Sumatran rhino-habitats still exist in three national parks on Sumatra Island.
The last Javanese rhino-habitat exist only in Ujung Kulon National Park on Java Island.  Around the world, the species of Javanese Rhino was only in the Ujung Kulon National Park.
Having declared extinction of rhinos in India, following Vietnam in 2011, currently the population of the Javanese rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in the world just stay in Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, West Java, Indonesia.

The increasement of human population, and the difficulty of breeding rhinos make the rhino populations endangered. The number of Javanese rhino (Rhinocheros sondaicus) at Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, is at least 35 and based on recent monitoring. The rhinos have been counted by using a camera trap technology.

Many problems are faced. The pressure of society, as well as a lack of concern. Community feel existence of the animal was not so important, it may be because of the society education. In fact Javanese rhinos only exist in Ujung Kulon.


Ujung Kulon National Park, 2002, by User:Ravn
Under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


And also the numbers of distribution locations of Sumatran rhinos are on the wane. The number of Sumatran rhino-habitats only remain in three places, in the South Bukit Barisan National Park, National Parks Way Kambar, and National Park Leuseur. Within a few decades earlier, Sumatran rhinos nearly scattered throughout mainland of Sumatra but at the moment they are no more than 150.


Sumatran Rhinoceroses at the Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Source : Photo Sumatran Rhinos: “Emi” and 14 month old son “Harapan” from Flickr
Author : Charles W. Hardin


Bukit Barisan National Park
Lisensi Dokumentasi Bebas GNU,


Gunung Leuser National Park in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
Source : Jungle Life / Indonesia, Gunung Leuser National Park
Under Licence Creative Commons Atribusi 2.0 Generik
Author : flydime


Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis) Rosa in the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary, Way Kambas, Sumatra, Indonesia
Source : flickr: IMG_2227
Author : Willem v Strien
Under Licence Creative Commons Atribusi 2.0 Generik

“In addition to hunting, forest loss is also a major threat to the survival of the remaining Sumatran rhino. Forest conversion uncontrollable causes fragmented forests. As a result, in some cases, the Sumatran rhino population reportedly entered the fields in search of food. In the South Bukit Barisan National Park, Lampung, a major threat to rhino habitat is forest encroachment into coffee plantations and other agricultural crops” explained Adhi Rachmat Hariyadi, Coordinator of the Rhino Conservation Program of WWF-Indonesia.

Besides breeding rhino population has been elusive by human factors, its presence is threatened due to further factors such as attacks from other animals like bisons and tigers.

Rhino preservation can be done in three stages, that is receiving supply of adequate food, water and adequate shelter. Involvement of local people who have lived longer around rhino habitats is capable to build a “fence”-zone which is effective in keeping the rhino population.


The obvious disadvantage is that once extinct, the species will not be found again!


Prambanan, another splendid temple in Indonesia

Prambanan is the largest Hindus temple in Southeast Asia. Its location which is not far from the temple of Borobudur as if to show about the harmony between the Buddhists and Hindus in Java, not just in the past but also today. Administratively, this temple is located on the border of Central Java and Yogyakarta, 17 kilometers from the center of Yogyakarta, in the middle area that is now built a beautiful park.


The Three Largest temple is dedicated to Shiva in the center, on the left Brahma, Vishnu and on the right. On the front of the temples are temples EACH of vahanas (vehicle of Gods). There is prevara Originally Hundreds of temples.
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported



The temple that by the local community is known by the name Roro Jonggrang, has a legend. Long ago there was a powerful and magical young man who wanted to marry a beautiful princess named Roro Jonggrang. The king who also the father of the Princess had forced her to marry “Bandung Bondowoso”. He is the prince of the neighboring kingdom. Roro Jonggrang did not love him but could not reject it anyway. After a long consideration, she finally gave one condition to Bandung Bondowoso to build 1000 temples and promised to marry him if her requirements could be resolved before dawn.

Roro Jonggrang requested that the work had to be completed before the rooster crowed that she thought it was impossible. But the magical Bandung Bondowoso nearly could complete the 999 temples with the help of  Jinn and his strength.

Roro Jonggrang asked the women in the village to start hitting the rice, to make the chickens woke up and began to crow. Bondowoso was very disappointed with her behavior, then changed her into a stone which is now known as Prambanan Temple, while the nearby temple called Sewu Temple or a thousand temples.

Prambanan temple was built in the 9th century, dedicated to the God Shiva (the destroyer), and two at each side dedicated to the God Brahma (the creator) and  God Vishnu (the keepers). The highest temple is 47 meters  5 meters higher than Borobudur temple and also among other temples in the vicinity.  The foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire to show Hindu triumph in the island of Java.


Shiva Mahadeva sculpture at the Candi Lara Jonggrang or Prambanan temple complex.
Author : Dr. W.G.N. (Wicher Gosen Nicolaas) van der Sleen (Fotograaf/photographer).
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


The four faced large stone statue of the Hindu creator God Brahma in the garbhagriha (main chamber) of Brahma Temple, Trimurti Prambanan temple, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


The large stone statue of Hindu preserver God Vishnu in the garbhagriha (main chamber) of Vishnu temple, Trimurti Prambanan temple, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Prambanan also has temple reliefs, which contains the story of Ramayana. According to experts, the relief is similar to the Ramayana story revealed through oral tradition. Another interesting relief is Kalpataru tree that the Hindu religion is considered as a tree of life, sustainability and environmental compatibility. At Prambanan, reliefs of Kalpataru trees depicted flanking the lion. The existence of this tree makes experts consider that the ninth century had wisdom to manage their environment.


Temple Relief Prambanan,lion in niche flanked by two kalpataru trees each flanked by a pair of kinnaras or animals.
GNU Free Documentation License


Ravana Sita Kidnapping riding winged giant, while the Jatayu on the left tried to help her. 9th century Prambanan bas-reliefs at the temple dedicated to Shiva at the temple of Prambanan or temple Lara Jonggrang,  Java, Indonesia.
Author : H. Bongers (Fotograaf / photographer).
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Prambanan was rediscovered by a Dutch citizen named CA Lons in 1733 after hundred years neglected. This temple has been renovated and is now known as the most beautiful Hindus temple in Indonesia.


Coolies with sedan chairs in front of ruins of Hindu temple of Prambanan.
Author : William Henry Jackson
Public domain – Wikipedia


Reconstruction of temples at Prambanan because of earthquake in May 2006 , Java / Indonesia
Author : Nomo michael hoefner
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


The beauty and complexity of the architecture Prambanan as a very beautiful building has been named as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1991.


Ramayana – Performing Arts at Prambanan Temple

Ramayana ballet is a dance drama, which tells the story of Ramayana, especially about Rama who is a legendary Hindus king and also can be said as the incarnation of God. This drama tells the story of Rama’s bravery.This famous drama, held at Prambanan Temple courtyard area in the form of dance. Ramayana ballet drama at Prambanan are usually held on the period of full moon to be enjoyed by visitors on various dates in that period of approximately six months. The dancers demonstrate their dancing skills to the audience in the beautiful traditional outfit.

Ramayana Dance drama at Prambanan temple is different from the original story in India,  it reflects the result of adaptation with Java culture for years and it is one of the best dance performance in Indonesian.

In this show not only the music and dance are carefully prepared, lighting has also been prepared in detail. This provides more value, because the light is not a torch light only, but much light from the lamp are designed to describe the events and moods of the characters.


Prambanan night view from the Trimurti open-air stage.
Author : Archiprez mosis
licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic


Javanese dance featuring the Ramayana Ballet. In this scene Shinta (Rama’s wife, second from left) is held as prisoner in Alengka palace garden by King Ravana, she is surrounded by princess, ladies in waiting and Servants.
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported



Prambanan Ramayana Ballet won the international award “PATA Gold Award 2012” beat 180 contestants from 79 countries in category “Heritage and Culture”, which is obtained at the annual conference of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) in 2012 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 21 April 2012.


Amazing Borobudur Temple in Yogyakarta (Central Java, Indonesia)

The Borobudur Temple is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 824 BC or 9th century  by Buddhist Mahayana.


Borobudur temple view from northwest plateau, Central Java , Indonesia .
Author : Gunawan Kartapranata for Wikipedia
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Millions of people want to visit this buildings which included in the World Wonder Heritages. Besides being a tourist attraction, is also a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Waisak/Vesak . This is according with its name meaning “monastery in the hills”.


Buddist monks Praying at Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic


The founder of the Borobudur Temple was the King Samaratungga, which comes from the dynasty Syailendra. The possibility this temple was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to the story hereditary named Gunadharma.

This temple for centuries was no longer used. Then because of volcanic eruptions, most of the Borobudur Temple building, covered with volcanic soil, trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the days of Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.

In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, during the colonial era  heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects  in the village of Magelang Bumisegoro and because he was very interested to the history of Java, Raffles immediately ordered the HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the location of the discovery which was a hill covered with shrubs.

Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that cover the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius Raffles reported to the invention includes a few pictures. Because of that discovery, Raffles was honored as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple was continued restored in the Dutch colonial period.

After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of  UNESCO to examine the damage of Borobudur. In 1963, was decided officially, that the government of Indonesia will conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help from UNESCO. However, this restoration completely began on August 10, 1973. The new restoration process was completed in 1984. Since 1991, the temple of Borobudur set as World Heritage Site, or the World Heritage by UNESCO.  Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles  gave the name of this temple with the name “Borobudur” , based on the true story with all evidence that are written and documented by him


Restoration of the memorial stone of the temple of Borobudur (with the help from Unesco)
Author : Masgatotkaca, transfered to Commons by Kenrick95.
GNU Free Documentation License


The first photograph Borobudur temple (1873) after the monument was cleaned from the plant, that grown in the temple. Dutch flag looked on the main stupa of the temple.
Author : en: Isidore van Kinsbergen
Public domain


The highest terrace after restoration. The main stupa has a tower with chattra (umbrella) stacking three.
Source : Tropenmuseum for Wikipedia
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Other than that, there are some other etymology folks said that the word of Borobudur came from the words: “The Buddhist”. Another explanation is : the name was derived from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word coal supposedly derived from “temple”, and the meaning of beduhur is “high”, or reminding the Balinese language meant “above”. So Borobudur meant monastery on a higher ground.

Borobudur temple which located in Magelang, Central Java, has 10 levels which consists of six levels of a square, 3 levels of a circular and a main Stupa as the peak. At each level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha inside it. Ten  level of Borobudur temple describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva (Buddha philosophy) which must pass to reach the perfection to become Buddha in nirvana (heaven). This perfection is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level.

On the fourth side of the temple, there is a gate and stairs to the level above, it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. The next step then, the stone become sand, plants, insects, wild animals, pets, and reborn as a human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is become soul and eventually get into nirvana and all about those things  illustrated in the reliefs and sculptures in the entire temple walls of Borobudur. Borobudur has 2670 different relief that are read clockwise. The relief  illustrate a story and to read it begins and ends at the gate on the east temple as a main Gate.


Siddharta Gautama relief on the walls of the temple
Author : Gunkarta for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License


The murals (reliefs) on the wall of Borobudur, central Java, Indonesia.
Author : Frank Wouters from antwerpen, belgium
Reviewer : Jeekc
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic


This huge building is the form of  giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone spliced without using cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected based on a pattern, and stacked. The stones which used approximately 55 000 cubic meters. All the stone was taken from the river around Borobudur. These stones are cut and spliced and transported to a pattern like lego games.

Borobudur temple  is one the evidence the greatness and human intelligence ever in Indonesia. Borobudur temple becomes the object of cultural tourism, other than Bali and some other places in Indonesia.


Borobudur Temple Scenery
Author : Mushin for Wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License.


Buddha statue in Borobudur (Java, Indonesia)
Picture taken by Jan-Pieter Nap
GNU Free Documentation License


Buddha in the Stupa Borobudur
A meditative Buddha statue perform dharmachakra mudra hand gesture inside the perforated bell-shaped stupa.
Author : Gunkarta Gunawan Kartapranata
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Really amazing video !