Category Archives: Nature

The Magnificence of Mount Bromo in Java Island

As one of the most beautiful mountain in the island of Java, Mount Bromo is so crowded with tourists. There, you can see the desert that is so exotic, cool mountain atmosphere with a thick fog, a beautiful crater and sunrise views that so stunning.


The Tengger massif in Java, Indonesia, at sunrise, showing the volcanoes Mt. Bromo (large crater, smoking) and Mt. Semeru (background, smoking). The early morning fog surrounds the peaks, covering a plain of finest volcanic ashes. Source : Thomas Hirsch Author : Thomas Hirsch  GNU Free Documentation License
The Tengger massif in Java, Indonesia, at sunrise, showing the volcanoes Mt. Bromo (large crater, smoking) and Mt. Semeru (background, smoking). The early morning fog surrounds the peaks, covering a plain of finest volcanic ashes.
Source : Thomas Hirsch
Author : Thomas Hirsch
GNU Free Documentation License


Bromo name is taken from the word Brahma, the supreme god of Hindus. Mount Bromo is a volcano that still active and a very famous as a tourist attraction in Indonesia. Bromo has a height of 2,392 meters above sea level, and is located in 4 regions in East Java, namely, Pasuruan, Lumajang, Probolinggo and Malang.

Mount Bromo has a crater with a diameter of about 800 meters (north-south) and approximately 600 meters (east-west). While the danger area, a circle with a radius of 4 km from the central crater of Bromo.

Bromo incorporated in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS) which includes Mount Bromo. TNBTS also includes Tengger tribe villages and the highest mountain in the island of Java, Mount Semeru.

If you come during the summer, you can see the sunrise and views of the mountains that wide stretches in the bright weather. The best time to come to Bromo is around the month of June to October.

Mount Bromo physical shape mesh between valleys and canyons with a caldera or a sea of ??sand, covering an area of ??10 square kilometers and there is a temple in the middle. To reach the crater of Mount Bromo and sea sand is not easy. If  not strong enough to climb by foot, we can rent horses with the price Rp 70,000 (7$).


Walking on the edge of Gunung Bromo volcano.  Author : Harri J from Doha ??????, Qatar GNU Free Documentation License.
Walking on the edge of Gunung Bromo volcano.
Author : Harri J from Doha ??????, Qatar
GNU Free Documentation License.


After that we had to climb 250 stairs, but do not worry, all the tiredness will pay off when it reached the peak. Seeing the beauty of the crater of Mount Bromo that secrete smoke and vast desert while waiting for the sunrise if we climb at dawn would look so beautiful. Moreover natural phenomenon Bromo is constantly extraordinary changing.

Once a year, Tengger residents of Bromo mountain, do Kasodo ceremony. The ceremony was held at the temple is located at the northern foot of Mount Bromo and continues up to the top of the mountain. Ceremony is held  every full moon on the 14th or 15 months Kasodo (tenth) according to the Javanese calendar.

Prepare enough warm clothes and head cap much needed to reduce the cold temperatures, considering the temperature there can reach 0 degrees Celsius.


Bromo eruption Source :
Bromo eruption
Source :


Even several times mount Bromo is erupted, the Center for Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center said people on the mountain slopes are safe and do not need to evacuate.

Mount Bromo has different characteristics to other volcanoes. This mountain has a low volcanic, would only issue a sands and ashes.


Mount Bromo Eruption


Legend of Mount Bromo

Ancient legend said there was a girl that lived in the affluent village near Mount Bromo, her name is Rara Anteng. She’s very pretty, friendly, humble, and diligent. She married a young man, Jaka Seger.

Jaka Seger and Rara Anteng were happy couple but they did not have a child. Therefore they pray to God. Soon an old man appeared and said, “you will have twenty-five children, but you have to sacrifice your son most small / young”.

Several months later Rara Anteng given gift of a baby. They were very happy. After a few years they  had twenty-five children. The youngest named Warih Kusuma.

One night Jaka Seger remember the message of the old man and talk to his wife. After that they head into the crater of Mount Bromo to pray to God because they can not sacrifice Warih Kusuma. Instantly the sky became dark and they heard the sound of thunder. They ran away from the crater.

Once the lightning had subsided, Warih Kusuma disappeared. They heard the sound of Warih Kusuma from inside crater, “Please let me go, but  give offerings every year”.

Finally Jaka Seger and Rara Anteng let Warih Kusuma go. Tengger name is taken from Jaka Tengger and Rara Anteng , since then Tengger residents always presents of livestock and agricultural produce at the Kasodo ceremony.


Bromo Mountain


Location of Mount Bromo

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The beauty of Bunaken island that is recognized by UNESCO

Bunaken Island is famous for Forest Park in the middle of the ocean or sea which had entered the National Park and has the highest biodiversity in the world oceans.

Bunaken Island is located in the north of Sulawesi, precisely in the Bay of Manado, and is included the territory of Indonesia. The extent of approximately 8.08 km2, but if totalized, Bunaken island has an area of ??approximately 75,265 hectares with five islands in it, among others: the island of  Manado Tua, Siladen Island, Mantehage Island, Naen Island and some islands from Mantehage island protected within the Bunaken National Park.


Bunaken Island Wikipedia GNU Free Documentation License
Bunaken Island
GNU Free Documentation License


The island of Bunaken to Manado Tua Island Source :Own work Author : Btv70  GNU Free Documentation License
The island of Bunaken to Manado Tua Island
Source : Wikipedia
Author : Btv70
GNU Free Documentation License


Bunaken National Park is representative for Indonesian tropical water ecosystems consisting of mangrove ecosystems, sea grass beds, coral reefs, land and coastal ecosystems.

The name “Bunaken” is known far abroad as one of the best dive sites in the world. Indonesia as a country with many islands in the world has plenty of magnificent beaches and marine biodiversity. In the Bunaken Marine Park the visitors will see the various forms of marine life which are beautiful and colorful.


Bunaken marine park at North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Source :Wikipedia Author : Borgx Public Domain
Bunaken marine park at North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Source : Wikipedia
Author : Borgx
Public Domain


Bunaken Island lined up from the southeast to the northwest part of the island. In this region also exist Great Underwater Walls which are often called the Hanging Walls or giant rock walls that stand vertically and curved upward.

According to the records, there are about 91 species of fish and live in the Bunaken Marine Park, while coral reefs totaling 13 species domination by the majority of marine rocks.

There are 20 point dive for scuba diving that could be enjoyed by the visitors who want to get the sensation while swimming in the bottom of the sea with a variety of marine life around.

Other than that view of the ocean still can be seen not only through diving, but in a way by boarding semi submarine ships that can be found offshore Bunaken Island. This ships have walls of glass, so visitors can see the view of the sea.

Bunaken National Park was established in 1991 and on 2005 UNESCO made ??Bunaken becoming one of the world heritage and made the tourism in that area  more popular.


Bunaken Island sightseeing


Diving in Bunaken Marine Park 


 Location of Bunaken Island

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Cemetery Trunyan, unique burial customs in Bali Island Indonesia

Terunyan is a village located in the district of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Batur Lake, Bali, Indonesia. In this area there are traditional funerall that are quite unique. Residents who had been died were burried in the great stone which has 7 pieces cavity.


Batur Volcano and Lake, Lesser Sunda Islands, IndonesiaAuthor : TropicaLiving Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Batur Volcano and Lake, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Author : TropicaLiving
Licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


The body is only fenced by a sufficiently woven bamboo. Uniquely after days though not embalmed, the bodies are not spreading a foul smell.

Custom village of  Terunyan is set procedure to bury their communities. In this village there are three  graves (sema) that are intended for three different kinds of deaths.

When one Trunyan resident died in natural way, the body will be covered with a white cloth, consecrated, and then laid without buried under a big tree called Taru Menyan (incent), at the location that is called Sema Wayah . However, if the cause of death is not natural, such as accident, suicide, or murdered, the  body will be placed in a location called Sema Bantas. Meanwhile, to bury babies and young children, or people who’ve grown but not married, will be placed at Sema Muda .


Trunyan, Kintamani, Bangli, Bali, IndonesiaGNU Free Documentation License .
Trunyan, Kintamani, Bangli, Bali, Indonesia
GNU Free Documentation License .


Explanation why the bodies were placed with neat in the grave odorless, even naturally buried and still occur decomposition of the corpses, it is caused by the Taru Menyan tree (Taru Incense Tree), which can release fragrance and is able to neutralize foul smell of corpses. Taru means fragrant incense. The Taru incense tree only grows in this area then known as a  Tarumenyan and more famous by the name Terunyan that is believed to be the origin of the village name. (Wikipedia)

In cemetery Trunyan, there are boards “Welcome to cemetery Trunyan Village”. Thereafter through the board then you will come across a small gate and the stately trees namely Trunyan trees.

The dead bodies there are just laid and covered in white cloth, and the bodies of which are visible only the legs and heads, fenced with woven bamboo that is plugged in the form of cone. The Wonders of nature in there is the dead bodies not cause a foul smell and also safe from insects such as flies, worms, and other activities as we met in the flesh rotting.

Trunyan Village, also known as a Fragrant Wood Village, means Village of Fragrant Tree (Nyan Tree). So Terunyan tree means the fragrant tree. Local people believe that the Trunyan tree can suck up odor corpses in the cemetery.

Not everyone can be buried in the cemetery of Trunyan. The Trunyan cemetary is devoted only to people who are considered death in an normal condition (clean) and had already married, but although the death is normal, but not yet married then it should not be buried in the cemetery of Trunyan, so also the death due to accident and sickness then it also not allowed.

There were only 11 graves used for 11 bodies, if there will be a new body to be buried, then the old body will be replaced with a new body, and the old body will be moved to another place but still in the cemetery area.

Belongings of the dead also saved around their buried place.


Trunyan Village in Bali


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The uniqueness of Maluku islands – East Indonesia

The Maluku Islands stretch from the Island of Halmahera in the north to the south of the Far East. Maluku is a region which is blessed not only because of the wealth of beautiful natural but also the Maluku (Moluccas) had always been known with honest and courageous character people.

There are many customs, arts and culture of Maluku, which is not known by many people. One of the traditional events that has been made are “PUKUL SAPU LIDI”, (Beaten by Broom stick),  implemented by the King of Mamala in Ambon – Maluku, where the event is held in every 7 (seven) days after the Day of the Great Islamic “Eid”.


Beaten by broom sticksFOTO ANTARA/Jimmy Ayal/ed/09.
Beaten by broom sticks
FOTO ANTARA/Jimmy Ayal/ed/09.


This ceremony includes the extreme events. In this ceremony, each participant will be whipping up the other participants alternately using sticks (Lidi) from palm tree, that has a length 1, 52 meters, on one condition that it should not be hit into the face or a vital part of the opponent.

The whole body of participants are bruised and bleed, but they do not look in pain. Whip injuries can even be cured quickly by using traditional ingredients made ??with coconut oil so it dries quickly and the wound healed.


Playing beaten
Playing beaten broom


This event has been running since a few hundred years ago in this area, so that almost all the people around the island of Ambon and foreign travelers who know the tradition are definitely attend the event and watch this show.


Attractions of broom stick beaten


Besides the tradition of the broom, there is another tradition that is often called “BAMBO GILA” (Crazy Bamboo), which is known by the people of Maluku and other parts of the community where the tradition of BAMBOO GILA is known is derived from the Moluccas, but there are still many society from other areas that still dont not know about it.


Crazy Bamboo By : Anom manik agung
Crazy Bamboo Attraction
By : Anom manik agung


Prepared first a piece of bamboo with a length about 2.5 meters and diameter of 8 cm before the game starts,

After giving a spell on the bamboo, the handler then shouted “crazy, crazy, crazy.” Attraction crazy bamboo began. The dancers will move swiftly, following the movement of wild bamboo. In fact, the player’s body will be swayed even fell up, because wild movement of the crazy bamboo. They will make a series of movements, and linking their fingers to each other with agility of leg movements that is included walking, jumping and running following the sound of dynamic musics. Attraction crazy bamboo will end with the players which are fall unconscious in the show arena. The unique of this show, magical power of bamboo does not go away before being fed fires.


Crazy Bamboo AttractionFoto: ANTARA/ Fanny Octavianus
Crazy Bamboo Attraction
Foto: ANTARA/ Fanny Octavianus


Attractions of Crazy Bamboo


Maluku Islands


Location of Maluku Islands-East Indonesia

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Mentawai tribes, ancient tribes which are Isolated from Sumatra Island Indonesia

Mentawai tribes are a group of people who live and settle in the Mentawai islands of West Sumatra. Until now Mentawai cultures relatively still original, because they are  isolated from the mainland of Sumatra and have not been influenced by other cultures.


Mentawai men displaying a traditional greeting.
Source :
Author : Christiaan Benjamin Nieuwenhuis
Public domain


Mentawai Islands are located in West Sumatra, composed from the island of Siberut, Sipora, North Pagai and South Pagai. Siberut Island is the largest but less in the population compare with the three other islands. Communication and transport problem caused Siberut Island mildly retarded in development. Mentawai Islands which separated from the mainland of Sumatra are estimated since 500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene age by rising sea levels. Since then the islands are isolated.

Siberut is becoming increasingly popular as an area to visit the ancient cultures. It is well known for its virgin rainforest, inhabited by a number of animal species which is not found anywhere else in the world, among them rare monkey species. Beautiful coral reefs are found offshore.

Siberut is only a relative small island and has the internal variation in language, culture in life style and in recourses are substantial. There is no clear indication of when man first arrived on Siberut, but anthropologist suggest that the bataks of the north Sumatra that is first settled on the island several years ago. In many ways, the people of  Siberut are the most ancient people among people  in Indonesia.

Most of traditional Mentawai people live in the inland, along the banks of the river in the upstream. The main food is Sago, which grows in the swamps of nature and also create their own swamp by retaining water in the root networks, when they want to plant on the flat land, but  every time they cut down the sago tree to be processed into food, they will replace it with a new sago trees. Fish, shrimp and pork are the most common source of protein that they eat.

From the first, Mentawai tribes always apply to live integrated with nature. Destroy nature and hunt wild is believed to bring disaster for the life of the Mentawai tribes.

Simplicity of life the Mentawai tribes can be seen from the way they dress. In general, clothes of  them still traditional. Mentawai men still wearing “kabit” which cover lower body, made of wood skin,  while the upper body was left naked without wearing a piece of cloth.

Another case with the women, to cover the lower body, they dangle a banana leaf midrib to form like a skirt. While for the the upper body, they knit up palm leaf shaped like a shirt. If there Mentawai tribes who wear fabric glove or clothes, there were only a few people.


Mentawai people (Wikipedia)


The Tribes in Mentawai islands are also famous because of their tattoo and they called it Titi. Titi is one part of artistic expression and the symbolic status of the Mentawai tribes.

Previously tattoos was popular among adult men and women of Mentawai. This time only a small Mentawai tribes which were tattooed. Some of them can be found in the interior of the island of Siberut.

Needles that are used are made from animal bone or sharpened wood  and would hit it into the body so that it will create the lines that are the main tattoo motive of Mentawai tribe. Colorants that is used comes from charcoal which is stuck on crock. Usually in making tattoos is started from hands, arms, legs and body. For several days, the newly tattooed skin will swell and bleed.

Reputedly, Mentawai tattoos are included the oldest tattoo art in the world, even older than the Egyptian tattoos.


Mentawai people


Mentawai Tribe Tatoos


Mentawai Tattoo Revival



Mentawai Islands Regency – Indonesia

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“Asmat”, the famous Papua tribe

Asmat is the name of the largest and most famous tribe among the many tribes in Papua, Irian Jaya, East Indonesia.  Irian Jaya or Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, located in the central part of of Papua Island or the eastern part of West New Guinea (Irian Jaya). Eastern parts is the Country of Papua New Guinea or East New Guinea.

One of the things that made the Asmat tribe well known is traditional wood carving that is very typical.


An Asmat woodcarver
Source : Own work
Author : Edi Wibowo
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Some ornaments / motifs that are often used and the main theme in the process of carving statues that made by the Asmat tribe is taken from the theme of their tribal ancestors.

Carving for Asmat tribe could be a link between the present life with the life of their ancestors. In each carving contained the image and appreciation for their ancestors that is loaded with Asmat tribe greatness.

Sculptures and carving are generally made without sketches. For Asmat tribe, when the statues was carved was a time when they communicate with the ancestors in the other world.

Often also found ornaments / other motif that is similar to the boat, which is they believe as a symbol of the boat that brings the ancestor soul in the another world. For the native Amat tribe, wood carving is a manifestation of the way they perform the ritual to remember the souls of the ancestors.


Asmat Tribe Papua


Asmat tribe spreads out and inhabit the area, around the shores of the sea and mountains Arafuru Jayawijaya. With a fairly heavy conditions, considering the area is occupied, wilderness, in the life of Asmat tribe, the stone that we usually see on the streets was very valuable to them. In fact, the stones can be used as a dowry.

All of that is because Asmat tribe residence shape the swamps, so it is difficult to find a stone which is very useful for them to make axes, hammers, and so on.

Asmat population in general have a typical physical characteristics, black and curly-haired. Their body are quite high. The average height of the Asmat women are around 162 cm and height of men can reach till  172 cm.

Asmat tribe has a very simple way to makeup themselves. They only need the red soil to produce a red color. White color is made from the clamshells that have been mashed, whereas the black color they produce from the wood charcoal that is mashed. Is quite simple to use it,  only by mixing it with a little water and then the dye was able to use for coloring the body.

The lifestyle of indigenous Asmat people  is that they feel they are a part of nature, that is why they are very respectful and keep the surrounding of nature. Even the trees around where they live are considered to be a picture of  themself. The trunk describes arms, fruit describes the head and the roots describe their feet.

Asmat people daily work surrounding environment. To find food is by hunting and gardening, which still uses traditional methods and simple. The main food of Asmat people is sagu/ Sago and special dishes for them is sagu worm (the larvae of the sago palm weevil), but everyday they just grilling fish or meat of animals from the hunt.


Asmat people preparing sagu/ sago


Asmat Papua fishing


 More detail about Asmat tribe can be found at : 

Asmat people (Wikipedia)


Papua, Irian Island, East Indonesia, location of Asmat Tribe

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Snow in “Puncak Jaya” (Carstensz Pyramid) Jayawijaya Mountains in the tropical area of Eastern Indonesia

Jayawijaya Mountains is the only mountains and mountain in Indonesia which have the peak that covered with eternal snow. Jayawijaya Mountains stretched lengthwise in the center of the province of West Papua and Papua (Indonesia) to Papua New Guinea on the island Newguinea (Irian Island) with the height 4884 meters above sea level. Row of Mountains which have some of the highest peak in Indonesia was formed by the removal of the sea floor thousands of years ago.


Location of Jayawijaya Mountains, Papua, Indonesia

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Jayawijaya Mountains become a paradise for world geological researchers because there are still many secrets of the unknown stones of Jayawijaya. The peak which is also listed as one of the top seven continents (Seven Summit) which is phenomenal and became the target of mountaineers in the world.

Researchers from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) at Columbia University, USA, Dwi Susanto, said the ice in  Puncak Jaya,  JayaWijaya Mountains, Papua, currently lives 22 percent of entirety.  Drastically reduced 78 percent in 2006 since 1936.


Puncak Jaya , West Papua , Indonesia
This is a NASA astronaut June 2005 photograph draped over the NASA World Wind SRTM90 DTM and viewed from a similar angle to the 1936 and 1972 USGS photo of this tropical glacier group.
Source : Made with NASA World Wind from NASA public domain imagery 
Author : Original uploader was Gergyl at en.wikipedia
Licensed under the GFDL by the author


He explained that the ice is reduced drastically due to the influence of climate change, the global climate change that more heat will accumulate around the equator.

Puncak Jaya  in the mountains of Jayawijaya, Papua, is one of three peaks in tropical areas which is permanently covered with a layer of ice, the others are the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania and  Andes Mountains Peak in Peru, America Latin.


Puncak Jaya
Source : Alfindra Primaldhi
Author : Alfindra Primaldhi
Under the terms of the license Creative Commons 2.0 Generic paternity


“By examining the ice sheet, not only to predict the future, but also see the history of climate change in Indonesia and Asia Pacific,” said Chief  BMKG (Organization of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Indonesia)  Sri Woro Harijono.

Besides known as Puncak Jaya, the highest peak is also known as Carstensz Pyramide, or the Carstensz Peak. The name was taken from an adventurer from the Netherlands, namely Jan Carstensz, who first saw the snowy peaks in the tropics, specifically in Irian Island. The truth of  Carstensz report revealed after nearly three hundred years later, when in 1899 a Dutch expedition mapping Papua Island and found the mountain peaks that is covered by snow, as reported by Crastensz. Hard to believe to see the snow scenery in the tropical area.

To honor Carstensz, the mountain peak was later given of his name,  while the name of  Puncak Jaya (Jaya Peak) was s a gift from President Sukarno (firsts President of Indonesia)  after successfully obtained the sovereignty of West Papua from the Netherlands. This name has a meaning  : “Peak Victory”, as an expression of gratitude for the unification of  West Papua with the Republic of Indonesia.


Expedition to Carstensz Pyramide



Location of Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid) Jayawijaya Mountains

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List of highest mountains of New Guinea (Wikipedia)

An amazing view of Mount Kelimutu, Flores Island Indonesia.

Mount Kelimutu is a volcano located on the island of Flores. The mountain location was precisely in the Pemo Village, Flores Distric, Ende Regency. This mountain has three crater lakes on the top. The lake is known as the Kelimutu lake, or Three Colors Lake, because it has three different colors, that is red, blue, and white. However, the colors are always changing over time.


Lake in the volcanic craters of Kelimutu.
Source : Own work
Author : Serenade
Permission : GFDL


Kelimutu is a combination word of “keli” meaning mountain and “mutu” which means boiling. According to the local belief, each color of the lake in the mountain has own meaning and has a very tremendous natural power.

The scenery in the area was very breathtaking. Thick white fog that moves slowly cover the peak of Mount Kelimutu (approximately 1640 meters above the sea level) is one of the very typical sight with three colored lake on the summit of the mountain.

Lake Kelimutu is divided into three sections according to the colors that exist in the lake.Blue lake or “Nuwa Muri Koo Fai Tiwu” is a gathering place for the souls of young people who have died. The Red lake or “Tiwu Ata Polo” is a gathering place for the souls of the dead  which during their life were always committed crimes/witchcraft and the White lake or “Tiwu Mbupu Ata” is a gathering place for the souls of parents who have died.


Crater lakes of Kelimutu at Flores Island, Indonesia.
The picture was taken by Brocken Inaglory
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


Initially Kelimutu lake is known to have three colors, red, white and blue. The lake which is now black, before 1970 the color was red, as seen at the value of 5000 rupiah (IDR), Indonesia banknote  (the old form).


Crater lakes of Kelimutu at Flores Island, Indonesia The insert shows a paper money with the picture of the lake. It used to be a different color. The picture was taken by Brocken Inaglory.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported


To climb to the top of Mount Kelimutu should be done early in the morning at 03.00 pm, because at 10:00 pm usually the weather was misty.

Some people make assumption that discoloration of water in the lake due to Kelimutu volcano activity, refraction of light, the sun, microbiota of water and because of the reflection color from the walls and the bottom of the lake. Short explanation is the water color changes to blue and white (now green) because of changes in the chemical composition of the the crater water, the impact from the changes of volcanic gases, or it could be caused by rising temperatures.


Kelimutu crater lakes, Flores Island, Indonesia (2008)
Source : Kelimutu
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic


Kelimutu crater lake, Flores Island, Indonesia 2007
Author : Rosino
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic


The locals believe that changes of three color lake indicate to the natural phenomenon that will come, such as a volcano erupting, a landslide or other natural disasters.


Location of Mount Kelimutu, Flores Island, Indonesia

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Fascinating Canyon in West Sumatra “Ngarai Sianok”

Ngarai Sianok  is a beautiful canyon, green and lush. On the bottom of the valley flowed tributary that meander tracing the cracks of the cliff, with the background of Mount Merapi and Mount Singgalang.


Ngarai Sianok and Singgalang mountain behind it
By : Ayu


Ngarai has a meaning valley, and Sianok is the name of a village in the area. Located is not far from Jam Gadang near the center of  Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatra (Sumatra Island) Indonesia.  It can  be reached  by public transportation.


Jam Gadang (literally “Big Clock”) is a clocktower and major landmark of the city of Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is located in the centre of the city, near the main market, Pasar Atas, and is a tourist attraction. This clocktower has large clocks on each side and was given the name “Jam Gadang” (Description from Wikipedia)
By : Ayu


This gap of about 100 m which stretches along 15 km with a width of  approximately 200 m and is part of the fracture that separates the island of Sumatra in half lengthwise.

The Fault formed the steep wall, even perpendicular and formed green valley. The result of the down movement of skin of the earth (sinklinal) which flowed by Sianok Trunk (trunk means river, the Minangkabau language) that the water is clear.

Ngarai Sianok is a steep valley (ravine) and become one of the main attractions of the province.


One of the beautiful valley or canyon in the world
by : Ayu


We can see a perfect view of the Ngarai Sianok from Panorama Park, which is located inside the town of Bukittinggi. In this park there is also a famous Japanese hole. The garden is very beautiful and spacious, cool weather was a typical Bukittinggi will make an amazing atmosphere

From there, we can see a perfect landscape. This valley has a cliffs covered by the green forests. The extent up to tens of kilometers.


The Forrest in the Valley
by : Ayu


This valley is also very charming. On the left side there is a barren cliffs and forests and small streams. On the right, there are rice fields, roads, and houses. At the top there is a mountain  which is shrouded by mist.


Foggy “Ngarai Sianok”
By : Ayu


In addition, there is also a herd of monkeys around the park. No need to be afraid because the monkey is pretty benign on the visitors. Others fauna that can still be found are : long-tailed monkeys, gibbons, hoop, deer, wild boar, leopard, and tapir.


One of the animals that exist there 😀
by : Ayu


Video of ” Ngarai Sianok” with the local traditional music background


Another Video of Beautiful “Ngarai Sianok”


  Location of Ngarai Sianok, Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia

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Rhinos nearly extinct!

According to the Head of Public Relations of the Ministry of Forestry Sumarto, Indonesia has two types of rhinos, the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and the Javanese rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Both Indonesian rhino-types are categorized as critically endangered because its population has decreased dramatically in the last three decades.


Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus) shown in the London Zoo from march 1874 until january 1885. It was captured in Jakarta.
Source : Zoonooz
Author : T.Dixon. The Zoological Society of London
Public domain


A photo of a young but dead Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon, the hunter is Charles te Mechelen.
Source : Rhino Resource Center
Author : Charles te Mechelen


The population of rhinos in Indonesia is nearly extinct. In order to maintain the existence of animals that belong to Indonesia, Javanese and Sumatran rhinos, various efforts were made.
Sumatran rhino-habitats still exist in three national parks on Sumatra Island.
The last Javanese rhino-habitat exist only in Ujung Kulon National Park on Java Island.  Around the world, the species of Javanese Rhino was only in the Ujung Kulon National Park.
Having declared extinction of rhinos in India, following Vietnam in 2011, currently the population of the Javanese rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in the world just stay in Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, West Java, Indonesia.

The increasement of human population, and the difficulty of breeding rhinos make the rhino populations endangered. The number of Javanese rhino (Rhinocheros sondaicus) at Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, is at least 35 and based on recent monitoring. The rhinos have been counted by using a camera trap technology.

Many problems are faced. The pressure of society, as well as a lack of concern. Community feel existence of the animal was not so important, it may be because of the society education. In fact Javanese rhinos only exist in Ujung Kulon.


Ujung Kulon National Park, 2002, by User:Ravn
Under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


And also the numbers of distribution locations of Sumatran rhinos are on the wane. The number of Sumatran rhino-habitats only remain in three places, in the South Bukit Barisan National Park, National Parks Way Kambar, and National Park Leuseur. Within a few decades earlier, Sumatran rhinos nearly scattered throughout mainland of Sumatra but at the moment they are no more than 150.


Sumatran Rhinoceroses at the Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Source : Photo Sumatran Rhinos: “Emi” and 14 month old son “Harapan” from Flickr
Author : Charles W. Hardin


Bukit Barisan National Park
Lisensi Dokumentasi Bebas GNU,


Gunung Leuser National Park in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.
Source : Jungle Life / Indonesia, Gunung Leuser National Park
Under Licence Creative Commons Atribusi 2.0 Generik
Author : flydime


Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis) Rosa in the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary, Way Kambas, Sumatra, Indonesia
Source : flickr: IMG_2227
Author : Willem v Strien
Under Licence Creative Commons Atribusi 2.0 Generik

“In addition to hunting, forest loss is also a major threat to the survival of the remaining Sumatran rhino. Forest conversion uncontrollable causes fragmented forests. As a result, in some cases, the Sumatran rhino population reportedly entered the fields in search of food. In the South Bukit Barisan National Park, Lampung, a major threat to rhino habitat is forest encroachment into coffee plantations and other agricultural crops” explained Adhi Rachmat Hariyadi, Coordinator of the Rhino Conservation Program of WWF-Indonesia.

Besides breeding rhino population has been elusive by human factors, its presence is threatened due to further factors such as attacks from other animals like bisons and tigers.

Rhino preservation can be done in three stages, that is receiving supply of adequate food, water and adequate shelter. Involvement of local people who have lived longer around rhino habitats is capable to build a “fence”-zone which is effective in keeping the rhino population.


The obvious disadvantage is that once extinct, the species will not be found again!