Orangutans are amazing species of ape. Orangutans only live on the island of Borneo and Sumatra, which is divided into two generic species, Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan of Borneo) and Pongo abelii (Sumatran Orangutan). 90% of the Orangutan population live in Indonesia, while 10% the rest can be found in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia. In Sumatra, the largest population is found in the Leuser Ecosystem, while the Borneo Orangutans can be found in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Central and East.
In Malay language, Orangutan means “man of the forest/woods” have a very high intelligence, with 97 percent of their DNA that identical to human.
Estimated current populations less than 30,000 individuals spread across two distribution regions (Sumatera and Kalimantan). According to estimates, the number of wild Orang Utans in the the forest of Sumatra contained only about 6500-7500 individuals. And wild Orang Utans in Borneo contained approximately 12000-13000 individuals. This is a reduction of the amount present in the last 10 years (30% – 50% reduction amount). Orang Utans spent more time (about 90 per cent) in the trees in the tropical rain forest, their habitat.
Orangutans even sleep in the nest made from twigs and leaf piles in the tree. They like to use wide leaves like banana leaves as an umbrella to protect themselves from the rain, and more solitary than other apes. When browsing the depth of forest, the male Orangutans making noises and shouting to ensure they are not disturbed by the presence of other Orangutans. Shouts of “long call” can be heard up to 2 kilometers. Scientists say that the individuals Orangutan requires browsing area approximately 150 acres. Shouts of adult male Orangutans absolutely amazing. Long duration of the call for about one minute even four minutes. The voice of Orangutans in Borneo forest is the most loud and scary.
The differences between Male and Female Orangutan
In general, male Orangutans have cheek pad on both cheeks and their size two times larger than females. Weight of males could reach 90-110 kg and 1.2 to 1.5 m long. Male Orangutans are not friendly, they will defend the area which they regard as their residence, they will even fight with other Orangutans if necessary.
Average Orangutans females weight could reach 60 kg and 1 to 1.2 m long. Females give birth usually produce one descendant within 8 years. 8 to 9 years, babies Orangutans sticking to their mother for 2 years they will begin to learn skills from their mothers for survival. They will leave their mother and go with other young Orangutans at age 8 years and at age 15 years, Orangutans will live by their own will.
Orangutans have a long stretch of hand. Adult males can stretch their arms up to 2 meters from fingertips in one hand to the other hand fingertips and even exceed the average of their height. When the Orangutan stood upright their hands will barely touch the ground.
Borneo Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have the physical characteristics of a larger body, dark or reddish brown, hairs sparse and short and in the baby appears there patches of reddish color or greenish.
Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelli) physical features body look smaller, light-colored or orange and arms longer than legs.
These intelligent primates looking for food during the day, with the composition of the menu consists mainly of fruit and forest leaves. They also eat the bark, insects, rarely eat meat and to get a water, they were punching holes in the trunks of trees that are useful to collect rain water and drink it by sipping from his wrist. Orangutans also take the form of mineral food from the soil but in very small quantities.
Because orangutans are scattered in several places and highly dependent on the presence of trees, they are vulnerable to the impacts of logging. Unfortunately, deforestation and other human activities such as hunting, whether it’s to be traded as pets or to eat their meat.
The more sad is when the hunter want to get the babies of Orangutans, they had to kill their mother and if the babies survived falling from a tree their were taken by the poachers. All those things that are caused the extinction of orangutans
Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) is currently engaged efforts to acquire lands ex-concession in Borneo to be used as a place to release rehabilitated orangutans back to their habitat. In order to save these species, the preservation of the natural habitat of Orangutans are the thing to do.
In 20 years this decade, according to the IUCN in 1993 approximately 80% of their habitat has been lost or destroyed. And IUCN calculate, if this situation has not changed, or stay like this, then in 10-20 years the Orangutans will be extinct. So that International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN/2004), made the category Critically Endangered / critical for Sumatran Orangutans and the Endangered / threatened species for the Orangutans of Borneo.
Orang Utans can be regarded as an indicator of the quality of forest ecosystem. When life in the treetops can be run properly, will highly affect the ecosystem beneath it. Therefore, it is important to preserve the Orangutans if we are determined to save the Earth from the threat of global warming, a phenomenon closely related to the systematic destruction of forests over the last century.
Destruction of Forests, Habitat of Orangutans
In Indonesia there exist several reasons that Forests as the natural habitat of Orangutans and other wild animals are reduced. Just mentioning legal reasons now from humans side the most natural reason is that the Indonesian Population grows and needs more land. Some industries force the deforestation drastically, mostly the need and retrieval of palm-oil is mentioned. Nestle company blamed by Greenpeace because of deforesting large areas to plant palm tree and using palm-oil for making chocolate in large amounts.
An Article of Greenpace about palm-oil you can find here: http://www.greenpeace.org/ … -plan-to-halt-forest-destruction/.
Another usage of palm-oil as a alternative fossil burning also coming from some countries, such as Germany and Austria.