Tag Archives: Kalimantan

Orang Utans have to be rescued!

Orangutans are amazing species of ape. Orangutans only live on the island of Borneo and Sumatra, which is divided into two generic species, Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan of Borneo) and Pongo abelii (Sumatran Orangutan). 90% of the Orangutan population live in Indonesia, while 10% the rest can be found in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia. In Sumatra, the largest population is found in the Leuser Ecosystem, while the Borneo Orangutans can be found in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Central and East.

 

Orangutan in the German Zoo “Tierpark Hellabrunn” in Munich
Author : Werner Gut , http://www.wernergut.de/

 

Orangutan at Berlin Zoo, Germany.
Author : David Arvidsson
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

Wild Orangutan spotted in Kutai National Park, Borneo, Indonesia.
Author : Neil – WWW.NEILSRTW.BLOGSPOT.COM
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

 

In Malay language, Orangutan means “man of the forest/woods”  have a very high intelligence, with 97 percent of their DNA that identical to human.

Estimated current populations less than 30,000 individuals spread across two distribution regions (Sumatera and Kalimantan). According to estimates, the number of wild Orang Utans in the the forest of Sumatra contained only about 6500-7500 individuals. And wild Orang Utans in Borneo contained approximately 12000-13000 individuals. This is a reduction of the amount present in the last 10 years (30% – 50% reduction amount). Orang Utans spent more time (about 90 per cent) in the trees in the tropical rain forest, their habitat.

Orangutans even sleep in the nest made from twigs and leaf piles in the tree. They like to use wide leaves like banana leaves as an umbrella to protect themselves from the rain, and more solitary than other apes. When browsing the depth of forest, the male Orangutans making noises and shouting to ensure they are not disturbed by the presence of other Orangutans. Shouts of “long call” can be heard up to 2 kilometers. Scientists say that the individuals Orangutan requires browsing area approximately 150 acres. Shouts of adult male Orangutans absolutely amazing. Long duration of the call for about one minute even four minutes. The voice of Orangutans in Borneo forest is the most loud and scary.

 

The differences between Male and Female Orangutan

In general, male Orangutans have cheek pad on both cheeks and their size two times larger than females. Weight of males could reach 90-110 kg  and 1.2 to 1.5 m long. Male Orangutans are not friendly, they will defend the area which they regard as their residence, they will even fight with other Orangutans if necessary.

Average Orangutans females weight could reach 60 kg and 1 to 1.2 m long. Females give birth usually produce one descendant within 8 years.  8 to 9 years, babies Orangutans sticking to their mother for 2 years they will begin to learn skills from their mothers for survival. They will leave their mother and go with other young Orangutans at age 8 years and at age 15 years, Orangutans will live by their own will.

Orangutans have a long stretch of hand. Adult males can stretch their arms up to 2 meters from fingertips in one hand to the other hand fingertips and even exceed the average of their height. When the Orangutan stood upright their hands will barely touch the ground.

Borneo Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have the physical characteristics of a larger body, dark or reddish brown, hairs sparse and short and in the baby appears there patches of reddish color or greenish.
Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelli) physical features body look smaller, light-colored or orange and arms longer than legs.

 

Orangutan rehabilitation centre, Buket Lawang ,Sumatra.
Author : Original uploader was Dave59 at en.wikipedia
GNU Free Documentation License

 

Bornean Orangutan
Author : Ltshears
Public Domain

 

These intelligent primates looking for food during the day, with the composition of the menu consists mainly of fruit and forest leaves. They also eat the bark, insects, rarely eat meat and to get a water, they were punching holes in the trunks of trees that are useful to collect rain water and drink it by sipping from his wrist. Orangutans also take the form of mineral food from the soil but in very small quantities.

Because orangutans are scattered in several places and highly dependent on the presence of trees, they are vulnerable to the impacts of logging. Unfortunately, deforestation and other human activities such as hunting, whether it’s to be traded as pets or to eat their meat.
The more sad is when the hunter want to get the babies of Orangutans, they had to kill their mother and if the babies survived falling from a tree  their were taken by the poachers. All those things that are caused the extinction of orangutans

Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) is currently engaged efforts to acquire lands ex-concession in Borneo to be used as a place to release rehabilitated orangutans back to their habitat. In order to save these species, the preservation of the natural habitat of Orangutans are the thing to do.

In 20 years this decade, according to the IUCN in 1993 approximately 80% of their habitat has been lost or destroyed. And IUCN calculate, if this situation has not changed, or stay like this, then in 10-20 years the Orangutans will be extinct. So that International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN/2004), made the category Critically Endangered / critical for Sumatran Orangutans and the Endangered / threatened species for the Orangutans of Borneo.

Orang Utans can be regarded as an indicator of the quality of forest ecosystem. When life in the treetops can be run properly, will highly affect the ecosystem beneath it. Therefore, it is important to preserve the Orangutans if we are determined to save the Earth from the threat of global warming, a phenomenon closely related to the systematic destruction of forests over the last century.

 

Destruction of Forests, Habitat of Orangutans

In Indonesia there exist several reasons that Forests as the natural habitat of Orangutans and other wild animals are reduced. Just mentioning legal reasons now from humans side the most natural reason is that the Indonesian Population grows and needs more land. Some industries force the deforestation drastically, mostly the need and retrieval of palm-oil is mentioned. Nestle company blamed by Greenpeace because of deforesting large areas to plant palm tree and using palm-oil for making chocolate in large amounts.

An Article of Greenpace about palm-oil you can find here: http://www.greenpeace.org/ … -plan-to-halt-forest-destruction/.

Another usage of palm-oil as a alternative fossil burning also coming from some countries, such as Germany and Austria.

Currently there is a large mining-project planed and to avoid, where a lot of forest shall be taken and many Orang Utans – beside lots of others animals and plants – would be killed.

We appreciate your signing of the petition, further information is shown following the link: Bornean orangutans need our help, pls sign the petition

Before slaughtered, orang utan hugged her child  , although this news in the Indonesian language, you can translate it into the language you want. You should read this news…Online-translation:

In our article about Sumatra-Tigers  you can know more about other companies who deforest the places where endangered animals live, like they never lived or exist there. Heartless!!

 

Habitats of Orang Utans in Borneo and Sumatra
Habitats of Orang Utans in Borneo and Sumatra

Dayak People in Borneo Island Indonesia

Dayak word comes from the word “Power”, which means upstream, to mention the people who live in inland. Meaning of the “Dayak” word is still much argued, many opinions about the definition of Dayak, among others, could mean inland, people, people who live in the river and some people claim that this term refers to some of the characteristics of the Dayak people, strong, brave, courageous and tenacious.

Dayak tribes are the original tribes of Borneo, which live in groups in inland, mountain, and etc. Dayak word is actually given by the Malays which came to Borneo, but after the Malays of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula came, also with arrival of the Bugis, Makassar and Java in the reign of the Majapahit Kingdom, they were increasingly retreated into the forest.

 

Dayak Chief
Source Tropenmuseum

 

There are various opinions about the origin of the Dayak people, but until now no truly satisfactory. However, the generally accepted opinion is that the Dayak is one of the largest and oldest native groups that inhabit the island of Borneo. Opinions about the natives is based on the theory of migration to Borneo. Based on that opinion, it is believed that the ancestors of the Dayak came from South China, as stated by Mikhail Coomans (1987,3).

All the Dayak tribes included the group that migrated massively from Asian mainland. They were descendants of immigrants who came from the place which is now called Yunnan in Southern China. From that place, a small group wandered through the peninsula of Indho China and Malaysia to enter the islands in Indonesia, In addition, there may be those who choose another path, through Hainan, Taiwan and Philippines. Displacement was not so difficult, because at the time of glacial (ice age) sea level extremely decreased (low tide), so with little boats, they can crossed the waters which separated the islands.

Migration theory as well answer the question: why the Dayak tribes have different properties, in the language and the characteristics of their culture.

The largest tribe in Indonesia is the Dayak tribes, that occupied the largest island in Indonesia, Borneo (Kalimantan).
Native tribes of Borneo island have a strong cultures and customs and distinctive and quite famous in the world. Dayak tribes scattered settlements on the head waters of the river where the river is the main transportation routes for them to perform a variety of mobility in everyday life such as work to the fields where their tribes are usually far from human habitation or to trade in farm activities.

In 1977-1978, the Asian continent and the island of Borneo which part of the archipelago were still together, allowing the Mongoloid race from asia to wander through the land, and reached by crossing  the mountains of Borneo which is now called the mountains of “Muller-Schwaner”.

They had spread from upstream to downstream and then inhabited the coast of  Borneo Island. Dayak peoples consist of several tribes that each has different characteristics and behavior.

Most of the Dayak tribes converted to Islam and no longer recognizes themselves as the Dayak, but call themselves as the Malays or the Banjar, while the others who rejected the religion of Islam back down the river, into the inland of Central Kalimantan, lived in areas of Wood Tangi, Amuntai, Margasari, Watang Amandit, Labuan and Watang Balangan Lawas. Some were kept pressed into the jungle. Dayak people followers of Islam are mostly located in the South and some in Kotawaringin. One of the famous Sultan of the Sultanate of Banjar Gastric Mangkurat (Kingdom).

Not only of the archipelago, other nations also came to Borneo. The Chinese nation is estimated to begin coming to Borneo in the Ming Dynasty in 1368-1643. From the manuscript lettered kanji mentioned that the first cities visited was Banjarmasin. But it remained unclear whether the Chinese came in the era Bajarmasin (under the hegemony of Majapahit) or in the Islamic era.

The arrival of the Chinese nation, did not result in Dayak population movement, and had no direct influence, because they only traded, especially with the kingdom of  Banjar in Banjarmasin. They did not directly trade with the Dayak people. Relics of the Chinese nation was saved by some Dayak tribes like malawen dishes, pots (jars) and ceramic equipment.

Customs of Dayak tribes still preserved until this day, and the supernatural world of Dayak tribes is still going strong. This custom is one of the wealth culture owned by the Indonesian people.

Currently, Dayak tribes are divided into 6 major families, namely: Kenyah family, Ot Danum Family ( consist of all the Dayak tribe, in Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan in the south and southeast), Iban Family, Murut family, Klemantan Family (one of the family of Dayak tribes in West Kalimantan, Sarawak East Malaysia, and Punan Family.

 

Dayak groups (Community)

 

This video was made by one guy from the Dayak tribe, which describes some Dayak tribes in Borneo

 

 

The sixth family were divided again to approximately 405 sub-tribes. Although hundreds  they have the same cultural characteristics which typical. These characteristics are factors among a sub-tribe in Borneo that can be inserted into the Dayak groups. These characteristics are : the long house, the material culture such as pottery, saber, chopsticks beliong (ax Dayak), view of nature, livelihoods (cultivation system) and the art of dance.

 

 

Religion of Dayak

Government of Indonesia set every citizen must embrace one of six official religions: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism.

Dayak tribes embrace the ancestor religion which was named Kaharingan which has guidelines that guide their lives for the better. Kaharingan religious practices differ from tribes to tribes.

Since the first century Hindu religion began to enter Borneo by discovery heritage Hindu religion in Amuntai, South Kalimantan and in the 4th century Borneo society entered an era of history characterized by the discovery inscriptions heritage from Hindu kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan and the discovery of the statues Buddha heritage from  ancient kingdom of Brunei.

This showed influence from Hindu-Buddhist and assimilation with the culture of India which marked the emergence of the first multiethnic communities in Kalimantan. With the spread of Islam since the 7th century peaked in the early 16th century, the kingdoms of the Hindu converted to Islam and marked the extinction of the followers of Hinduism and Buddhism in Kalimantan. Since then began to appear Malay customary law / Banjar which partly influenced by Islamic religious law.

 

Barito Muslim Dayak communities that are recognized as a tribe on the river Barito Bakumpai past.
Sumber : Tropenmuseum

 

Supranatural world


The world’s Supranatural for the Dayak tribe has existed since ancient times and was the hallmark of Dayak culture. Because of this supernatural, the foreigners called Dayak as cannibals but in fact Dayak tribes are very peace-loving tribes, as long as they are not harassed and persecuted unjustly. Many kinds of supernatural powers of Dayak, for example “Manajah Antang”.
Manajah Antang, is the Dayak way to look for clues such as looking for the presence of the enemy which is hard to find. From the ancestors by “Antang birds” media, wherever the enemy which on the search would be found.

Red Bowl

Red bowl is the Dayak tribe unity media. Red bowl will be circulated if the the Dayak people feel their sovereignty in grave danger. “Commander” usually announced standby signal or war in the form of red bowl, which circulated from village to village rapidly. From the daily looks a lot of people probably do not know who the commander of the the Dayak tribes. The man probably just an ordinary person, but he has extraordinary supernatural powers.

Red bowl not carelessly distributed. Previously the commander must make a custom event to know when the time is right to start a war. In a custom event, the spirits of the ancestors will be taken possession of the commander, and if he was calling out the spirit of ancestors to ask for help, the the Dayak people who hear it will be also have the power like their commander. Usually people that mentally not stable, can be sick or crazy when they hear the scream.

Red bowl is made from bamboo terrace (some say is made from clay) which is designed in a circular shape. To accompany these bowls are also provided other equipment such as yams red jerangau (Acorus Calamus) which symbolizes the courage (some say could be replaced with yellow rice), red chicken feathers to fly, the torch from bamboo for torchlight (some say could be replaced with struck a match), sago palm leaves (Metroxylon sagus) for shelter and straps from leather kepuak knot as a symbol of unity. Equipment is packed in a bowl and covered with red cloth.

According to stories passed down through generations, red bowl first circulated when once war against Japan. Then occur again when the expulsion of Chinese from the Dayak areas in 1967. Dayak expulsion to the Chinese people was not inter-ethnic war, but because a lot of political content, which at that time there was confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia.

 

Dayaks in Their War Dress with some weapons too
Source : The Illustrated London News
Author : F. Boyle
Public domain

 

Several types of weapons used by the Dayak tribes

 

Dayak machete
Source : www.trocadero.com

 

machetes used by the Dayak (Bidayuh, Kayan, Kelabit, Kenyah, Iban, Ngaju, Penan and Punan) in Kalimantan
Source : 2.bp.blogspot.com

 

Mandau (Sword hilt with of bone, and small sheath knife)
Source : Tropenmuseum
Author : Tropenmuseum

 

Nabur Banjarmasin Machete
sources www.oriental-arms.co.il

 

Borneo Island, the place where Dayak tribes live


View Larger Map

Journey to Borneo rainforest

Our trip from Banjarmasin in South Borneo to the Rain Forest in the Central Borneo needed about 5 hours. We’re through The Barito river bridge, one of the major rivers in Borneo. Water from the Barito River down from the highlands of Mount Meratus, and is an important highway of the river between the coast and the mainland of South Borneo. Barito River is the longest river in Southern Borneo, 600 miles in length and water of Barito River is muddy, because it carries mud and trash from inland

 At Barito River Bridge

At the gates to the boat for a trip to the rainforest, place of the Dayak & Orang Utan

In Indonesia we made a boat trip to see Villages of civilized Dajak, Orang Utans and a part of the indonesian forest.

For adventure in this place to see orang utan, Dayak tribe and rain forest, we had to rent a boat, with variety prices according to the size and type of boat. Price was expensive when we rented it, because we chose more private. From the boat across the river we could see the mangrove swamps, lowland rain forest, dense forest and of also a few of orangutan.

Scenery in the Rain forest

When It was raining

On the ship along the way of rain forest

Kahayan River at Indonesia Borneo Island has a wealth of ecological and cultural treasures that survive deep within the rainvforest jungle. This area is isolated, but tourists can adventure along the river. You could find the Dayak people, but some of them are undergoing modernization.

 Orangutans cover their heads with paper around them when it rained

Two orangutans in the trees that we can only see from far away, the guards did not allow our ships, to get closer, because at the time other than the river water was receding and could cause the shipwreck, also to avoid them jump into the boat. That would be dangerous, because we can never predict what will happen.

This bridge is in Palangkaraya and we saw it when we started the boat trip a bit in the south of the bridge. Larger Mapview. This map shows the landing place of the boat as well as the bridge. The boat took the way under the bridge to the northern part of the river.

Bracelets from Borneo of Agate Stone (Akik)

In Kalimantan (Borneo) are many mines for stone. One of these stones is Agate stone, which is used for many kinds of bracelets and necklaces. It is found in many different colors, so the color is not a typical property for that stone. Agate stone is a hard material and is stable against acid, therefore jewellery of it is easy to handle and isn’t very damagable. Jewellry of Agate Stone is made in many various color-combinations. Like other natural materials it looks very smooth and has special character, depending on the current light the color maybe recognized different.
The size and shape of Agate Stones isn’t restricted to small stones like on the following picture with the bracelets we offer. But it depends on individual founds and can reach heavy weight. Some stones are marbled very clear and therefore have a special character,
On the page of wikipedia are many pictures of Agate Stone:
What is Agate Stone? (from Wikipedia).