Saman dance is the dance from Gayo (Gayonese) Aceh, northern Sumatra island. Named Saman dance because it was created by a clerics named Sheikh Saman in XIV century AD from the highlands of Gayo. Saman dance is reflection of education, religion, manners, heroism, teamwork and togetherness.
Saman dance uses two basic element movements, which are the applauses and a pat on the chest. In Saman dance, after sometime the rhythm and movements become faster and makes the Saman Dance more interesting.
Traditional clothing for Saman dance are shirt and trouser, hat-shaped rolls, and a scabbard (sarong) and they are colorful. Clothes have to slightly loose in order to dance freely.
And there is still sarong worn below the belly with variety kinds of belts.
Saman dance is not only popular in Indonesia but also overseas and it is often played in foreign countries.
On November 24, 2011 UNESCO officially recognized Aceh’s traditional Saman Dance as an intangible element of world cultural heritage, which needs UNESCO’s urgent protection
The ASEAN Tourism Association (ASEANTA) named on Saman Dance as the best ASEAN cultural preservation effort at the 25th ASEANTA Awards for Excellence 2012 (Wikipedia).
Saman Dance – Gayonese Traditional Dance – Sumatra, Indonesia
Orangutans are amazing species of ape. Orangutans only live on the island of Borneo and Sumatra, which is divided into two generic species, Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan of Borneo) and Pongo abelii (Sumatran Orangutan). 90% of the Orangutan population live in Indonesia, while 10% the rest can be found in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia. In Sumatra, the largest population is found in the Leuser Ecosystem, while the Borneo Orangutans can be found in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Central and East.
In Malay language, Orangutan means “man of the forest/woods” have a very high intelligence, with 97 percent of their DNA that identical to human.
Estimated current populations less than 30,000 individuals spread across two distribution regions (Sumatera and Kalimantan). According to estimates, the number of wild Orang Utans in the the forest of Sumatra contained only about 6500-7500 individuals. And wild Orang Utans in Borneo contained approximately 12000-13000 individuals. This is a reduction of the amount present in the last 10 years (30% – 50% reduction amount). Orang Utans spent more time (about 90 per cent) in the trees in the tropical rain forest, their habitat.
Orangutans even sleep in the nest made from twigs and leaf piles in the tree. They like to use wide leaves like banana leaves as an umbrella to protect themselves from the rain, and more solitary than other apes. When browsing the depth of forest, the male Orangutans making noises and shouting to ensure they are not disturbed by the presence of other Orangutans. Shouts of “long call” can be heard up to 2 kilometers. Scientists say that the individuals Orangutan requires browsing area approximately 150 acres. Shouts of adult male Orangutans absolutely amazing. Long duration of the call for about one minute even four minutes. The voice of Orangutans in Borneo forest is the most loud and scary.
The differences between Male and Female Orangutan
In general, male Orangutans have cheek pad on both cheeks and their size two times larger than females. Weight of males could reach 90-110 kg and 1.2 to 1.5 m long. Male Orangutans are not friendly, they will defend the area which they regard as their residence, they will even fight with other Orangutans if necessary.
Average Orangutans females weight could reach 60 kg and 1 to 1.2 m long. Females give birth usually produce one descendant within 8 years. 8 to 9 years, babies Orangutans sticking to their mother for 2 years they will begin to learn skills from their mothers for survival. They will leave their mother and go with other young Orangutans at age 8 years and at age 15 years, Orangutans will live by their own will.
Orangutans have a long stretch of hand. Adult males can stretch their arms up to 2 meters from fingertips in one hand to the other hand fingertips and even exceed the average of their height. When the Orangutan stood upright their hands will barely touch the ground.
Borneo Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have the physical characteristics of a larger body, dark or reddish brown, hairs sparse and short and in the baby appears there patches of reddish color or greenish.
Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelli) physical features body look smaller, light-colored or orange and arms longer than legs.
These intelligent primates looking for food during the day, with the composition of the menu consists mainly of fruit and forest leaves. They also eat the bark, insects, rarely eat meat and to get a water, they were punching holes in the trunks of trees that are useful to collect rain water and drink it by sipping from his wrist. Orangutans also take the form of mineral food from the soil but in very small quantities.
Because orangutans are scattered in several places and highly dependent on the presence of trees, they are vulnerable to the impacts of logging. Unfortunately, deforestation and other human activities such as hunting, whether it’s to be traded as pets or to eat their meat.
The more sad is when the hunter want to get the babies of Orangutans, they had to kill their mother and if the babies survived falling from a tree their were taken by the poachers. All those things that are caused the extinction of orangutans
Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) is currently engaged efforts to acquire lands ex-concession in Borneo to be used as a place to release rehabilitated orangutans back to their habitat. In order to save these species, the preservation of the natural habitat of Orangutans are the thing to do.
In 20 years this decade, according to the IUCN in 1993 approximately 80% of their habitat has been lost or destroyed. And IUCN calculate, if this situation has not changed, or stay like this, then in 10-20 years the Orangutans will be extinct. So that International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN/2004), made the category Critically Endangered / critical for Sumatran Orangutans and the Endangered / threatened species for the Orangutans of Borneo.
Orang Utans can be regarded as an indicator of the quality of forest ecosystem. When life in the treetops can be run properly, will highly affect the ecosystem beneath it. Therefore, it is important to preserve the Orangutans if we are determined to save the Earth from the threat of global warming, a phenomenon closely related to the systematic destruction of forests over the last century.
Destruction of Forests, Habitat of Orangutans
In Indonesia there exist several reasons that Forests as the natural habitat of Orangutans and other wild animals are reduced. Just mentioning legal reasons now from humans side the most natural reason is that the Indonesian Population grows and needs more land. Some industries force the deforestation drastically, mostly the need and retrieval of palm-oil is mentioned. Nestle company blamed by Greenpeace because of deforesting large areas to plant palm tree and using palm-oil for making chocolate in large amounts.
Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is one of five subspisies tiger (Panthera tigris) in the world that still survive. Including the endangered Sumatran tigers which are also the only sub-species of tigers that still belongs to Indonesia after the two brothers, Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) and Java Tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) declared extinct.
These animals can only be found on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Population of them that are living in the wild is estimated to 400-500. Sumatran tigers more rare and are categorized as endangered species. There are at least 250 Sumatran tigers that kept in zoos worldwide.
The impact of destruction of forests by APP is not only devastating the environment but also threaten the Sumatran tigers balance. Sumatran forest destruction by APP to supply the pulp and paper industries which also used for packaging products of Hasbro, Mattel and Disney. Destruction of natural forests is continuously forcing the tiger of Sumatra and other wildlife which live in the woods increasingly pressured closer to the residential society.
This rare cat could live anywhere, from lowland forests to mountain forest and lived in many places which not protected. Sumatran tigers are the smallest tiger subspecies, have the darkest color among all the other tiger subspecies, the black pattern of them sized width and tightly.
Their small size makes it easier to move through the jungle. There is a membrane in between the fingers that make them able to swim fast. Tigers are known to drive hoofed prey into the water, especially if the prey animal is a slow swimmer. This cat patiently stalking their prey before attacking from behind or the side. They eat anything that can be captured, generally boar and deer, and sometimes poultry, fish, and orangutans. They are also able to swim and climb a tree when hunting prey.
Male Sumatran tiger has the average length of 92 inches from the head to tail with a weight of 300 pounds. Females average 78 inches in length and weighs 200 pounds. Sumatran tiger stripes are thinner than other tiger subspecies. This subspecies also had more beard hair and mane than other subspecies, especially the male tiger.
Sumatran tiger can live up to 10-15 years. females generally start breeding at 3-4 years of age. The gestation period lasts between 95-110 days. Females can give birth to six babies, but normally is 2-3 babies. Their fur change color to dark green when giving birth. The babies will stay with their mother until the age of 18-24 months until they are able to be independent in nature.
Sumatran tiger food depending where they live and how abundant prey. Sumatran tigers are generally solitary except during mating season and will be together with female and their children.
The main threats for Sumatran tigers are habitat destructions and hunting. Deforestation continues even in the national park that should protect them. Recorded 66 tigers were killed between 1998 and 2000.
In the effort to rescue the Sumatran tiger from extinction, Taman Safari Indonesia (Indonesian Safari Park) is appointed by the 20 zoos in the world as the Sumatran tigers Breeding Center, “studbook keeper” and sperm storage (Genome Bank Rescue) for Sumatran tigers. An expert from the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Kathy Traylor-Holzer said that the genetic purity of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) are highest in the conservation agencies of Taman Safari Indonesia which is located in West Java. That statement presented at the “Global Species Management System” (GSMS) for Sumatran tigers, which was held at the Royal Safari Garden Hotel.
Experts from Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) said that from more or less 100 zoos in Japan, only four zoos that have Sumatran tigers and the number are only seven left.
While in the European region there are 104 Sumatran tigers, in the North American Region there are 69, Australia 51 and in Indonesia zoos there are 96. According to Kathy Traylor-Holzer, Sumatran tigers at Taman Safari Indonesia has the highest genetic purity which reached 93.3 percent.
Outside of Indonesia, she said that the genetic purity to the highest Sumatran tigers held by the North American region that is equal to 89.8 percent, then Europe with 86.9 percent, Australia 86.2 percent and Japan with 77.8 percent. She also said that the genetic purity is necessary to protect the existence of Sumatran tigers at the zoo.
Drs. Manansang Jansen, MSc, President SEAZA (Association of Zoos South-East Asia) also said that genetic purity of the Sumatran tigers that achieved by Taman Safari Indonesia is possible, because they manage the population of Sumatran tigers strictly.
Taman Safari Indonesia will be pleased to assist purification genetic of Sumatra tigers in zoos around the world, but the tiger which will be sent, must fulfill license that set by the laws of Indonesia. Beside that, the Sumatran tigers that would be sent, have to be from the breeding, not from wildlife.
Sumatra Island, and some location of the Sumatran tigers
In early July, a year ago, there was a sad news. Sumatran tiger “The King of the jungle” died in a tragic way. This incident documented by Greenpeace when The Tiger was trying to be saved by a team of Natural Resources Conservation Center (BKSDA) Riau-Sumatra. The tiger died in his own territory, which later the place changed into Acacia plantations, owned by APP, Pulp and paper giant company that continues to destroy Indonesia’s forests.
This sad video showing the price that have to be paid by wildlife for their home that missing.
The Sumatran tiger was found already trapped for 7 days. Forest officials arrived to give him a sedative, tried to save and evacuate him, but the Sumatran tigers could not be saved.
The impact of destruction forests by APP is not only devastated but also threaten climate balance of Sumatran tiger. Destruction forest by APP is to supply the pulp and paper for some industries which also used them for packaging products of Hasbro, Mattel and Disney. Destruction of natural forests is continuously forcing the tiger of Sumatra and other wildlife which live in the woods increasingly pressured closer to the residential society.
Our video evidence is increasingly clear that APP did not care about the environment and even destroyed it, the evidence is also increasingly clear that a variety of “sustainable label” that carried by APP highly should be doubted, the credibility of forest certification organization such as the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is also questionable. PEFC certify ‘sustainable’ to paper products throughout the world, but by many parties repeatedly criticized for their relationship with APP. Extremely surprising, products that contain natural forest timber, which is taken from the dead tiger habitat can be certified by PEFC.
Last month Greenpeace used forensic tests to reveal the manufacture of toys, like Barbie and Transformer produced by Hasbro, Mattel and Disney which use packaging from deforestation in Indonesia. This study also used the guide field investigations, mapping data, which reveal newest evidence of destruction natural forests and peat on the island of Sumatra by APP.
Write and send a letter to Mattel to stop forest destruction in Indonesia!
Give education to the future generations not to destroy the future of Indonesia’s forests.
Greenpeace campaigns for protecting forests in Indonesia. Including habitat of endangered tigers.
Magic stone that is located in the area of Batu Sangkar, Padang, West Sumatra has been famous because of its uniqueness. Magic Stone is called Batu Angke by residents of that area. The stone is special because often changes its weight.
Tourism Angke stone, located in District Batu Sangkar River, about three hours drive from city of Padang. Apparently the magic stone has started visited by tourists since 100 years ago. During that time, seven generation keeping this unique heritage.
Batu Angke can be so heavy or it can be very light such as cotton, appropriate the belief of people who lifting it. It is said that there is magical powers in it. In the language of Minang, Angke-Angke means “lift”, so Batu Angke means stone that lifted.
Reading prayer is the rule before lifting the stone. Many from visitors exhausted because this stone can weigh up to hundreds of pounds on their hands. In order to lift the stone is free of charge, only for buying souvenir charged 1$.
In the North Sumatra, there is a very large lake, and in the middle of the lake there is a volcanic island. The lake named “Danau Toba” (Lake Toba), while the island in the middle of the lake, named Samosir island. This lake is the largest lake in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia.
In ancient times in a village in North Sumatra, there lived a farmer named Toba. He lived alone in the fertile valley and worked in the farm for a living. Besides worked in his farm, sometimes he went fishing in a river that not far from his home. Easy for him to get the fish, because in a clean river there were plenty of fish to be cooked become some food.
One evening, after returning from farm, he went to the river for fishing. After a while he did not get any fish. It’s never happened before. Usually the fish in the river was easy to get. Because it was too long to wait, he became upset and decided to stop fishing, but when he wanted to pull the fishing line, all of a sudden there was a fish reeled in his line into the middle of the river. His heart was glad, because he knew the fish that grabbed the bait was a big fish. The fish was quickly pulled to the ground, in order not to loose it. At the time he was off the hook, the fish looked at him meaningfully. Then after the fish were placed into one place, he got into the river for bathing. He felt very happy because he never get that big fish. When he left the river, it had started evening.
When Toba got home, he was immediately brought the big fish to the kitchen. When he wanted to light a fire for grilling fish, firewood was in the kitchen had run out. He immediately went out to get firewood from the ground under his house then he climbed back into the house and went straight to the kitchen. By the time he had reached the kitchen, he was shocked because the big fish that was not there anymore, but on where the fish was placed there were some pieces of gold. With shocked and surprised he left the kitchen and entered the room.
When Toba opened the door, he was more surprised, because in the room stood a woman with a long hair. She was combing her hair while stood facing the mirror that hung on the wall. A moment later she was suddenly turned around and looked at the man who was confused. Toba was so fascinated because he saw a beautiful woman in front of him. He had never seen such a beautiful woman even before he had wandered away to different countries.
Because it was late at night, she asked him to turn on the lights. After he had turned on the lights, he was invited to accompany her in the kitchen because she wanted to cook rice for them. While waited for the rice cooked, she told him that she was the manifestation from the big fish. She also explained that some pieces of gold which was located in the kitchen was the manifestation from the fish scales. After several weeks, she was willing to accept Toba proposal to marry her, but with one condition that he should swear that he would never bring up the origins of his wife as long as he lives. After he sworn, they got married.
A year later, they were blessed with a son who they named Samosir. He was very spoiled by her mother and resulting less well-tempered boy, and lazy. After growing up, her mother ask him to deliver some rice for his father everyday who worked in the farm. However often he refused it.
One day, the boy ordered by his mother again to deliver a rice for his father. At first he refused. However after being forced by her mother finally he went with annoyance to deliver the rice. On the way most of the rice and side dishes he ate. Arriving in the farm, the rest that were only a bit rice that he gave it to his father.
When received it, his father who was feeling very hungry because the rice was delivered late, got mad when he saw the rice that given to him was the remains. His father even more angry when his son admitted that he was who ate most of the rice, and father became lost patience, and he beat his son and saying: “Son of bitch!, ungrateful. Really you were a son of women who came from the fish! ”
The boy cried and ran home to meet his mother at home. He complained to his mother that he was beaten by his father. He told all the words spoken by his father. Hearing her son’s story his mother was so sad, especially since her husband had broken his vow. Then she told her son to immediately went up to the hill which is located not so far from their house and climbed the highest tree located on top of the hill. Without asking again, the boy obeyed her mother. He ran toward the hill and climbed it.
As seen by the mother that her son had almost to the top of the tree, she ran towards the river that were not so far away from home. When she arrived at the edge of the river, lightning struck along with thunderous sound. She jumped into the river and suddenly turned into a big fish. At the same time the river was flooding and heavy rain fell. Some time later the river was already overflowed everywhere and the valley and that area gone. Toba could not save himself, he was drowned by a pool of water. More longer stagnant water more widely and turned into a very large lake and later on that place named by the people with the name: “Danau Toba” (Lake Toba).
Toba Lake (Danau Toba) View in the north of Sumatra Island Indonesia
Toba lake views with Samosir island in the middle.
Malin Kundang folklore tale is one of the legends of Indonesia that you should know, and search for it moral messages. This legend comes from the province of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Malin Kundang legend tells the story about the child who disobedient his mother and therefore was cursed became a stone. A form of stone located in “Pantai Air Manis” (Sweet Water beach), Padang, West Sumatra-Indonesia.
Malin Kundang lived in the poor fisherman family. Because of poor financial condition, his father decided to make a living overseas, sailed the ocean. Having been left by his father, Malin Kundang lived alone with his mother in their huts. More than 1 year Malin’s father did not return, so his mother had to replace Malin’s father to make a living. Malin was a smart boy but a bit naughty, many times he chased some chickens and hit them by broomstick. One day, when Malin was chasing a chicken he tripped over the stone so that his right arm injured and the wound made a mark.
Feeling sorry for his mother who worked hard to make a living to raise him, Malin decided to go wandered in order to become rich after returning home later . At first Malin Kundang mother not agreed, remembering her husband also never returned after going abroad, but Malin still insisted, so his mother finally gave up and let Malin go, boarded the ship belonged to a merchant. During his stay in the ship Malin Kundang learnt about the science of sailing to the boat crews that has been experienced.
Along the way, all of a sudden Malin Kundang ship was attacked by pirates. All merchandise traders which were on board seized by pirates. Even most of the crew and people on the ship were killed by pirates. Malin Kundang was lucky, he was hiding in a small space covered by the timber so he safe.
Malin Kundang was adrift in the middle of the sea, until finally the ship was stranded at the beach. With energy left, Malin Kundang walked to a nearby village from the beach. He found a very fertile village and started to work there. With his perseverance in work, finally Malin became a wealthy man. He had a lot of merchant ships with men more than a 100 people. Having became rich Malin Kundang got married.
Malin Kundang news that had become rich and married, also known by his mother. She was very grateful and happy that her son had succeeded. Since then, every day she went to the dock waited for him that might be returned to his hometown.
After a long marriage, Malin and his wife sailed, accompanied by boat crews and a lot of bodyguards. Malin mother saw the arrival of the ship to the dock, she saw two people were standing on the deck. She believed that his son and his wife who were standing there.
She headed toward to the ship and once close enough to him, she saw the scars on his right arm, she more convinced that it was her son and she approached, hugged and asked him : “Malin Kundang, my son, why did you go for so long without sending any news?”. Seeing an old woman dressed up dirty and hugged him, Malin Kundang became angry even though he knew that the old lady was his mother, he was embarrassed if it was known by his wife and his crew.
Got treatment like that from his son, the mother of Malin Kundang was very upset. She did not expect his son can be rebellious child. Because of mounting anger, she cursed his son and said : “Oh God, if he was my son, I curse him become a stone.”
Not long after Malin Kundang back sailed, but in the middle of the trip came a violent storm destroyed his ship. After that Malin Kundang body slowly became stiff and gradually formed became coral reef. Until now Malin Kundang stone still can be seen at a beach called “Pantai Aia Manih” (Padang language) or “Pantai Air Manis” (Sweet Water beach), in south of Padang city, West Sumatra.
Scenery of Mount and ocean in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Legend is the story of the people in ancient times that has to do with historical events related to the famous story, be, and is remembered by many people, is told from generation to generation, associated with the struggle, the heroism which is useful and felt his spirit to the present.
Legends that exist in Indonesia are so many, just like the folklore and myth and is one step to trace the history of the tradition of the people of Indonesia in the past.Legend according to wikipedia
Some of the legends of Indonesia that I will tell you here are :