Rumah gadang (Gadang House) is a traditional house that is the result of Minangkabau ethnic cultures who live in Bukit Barisan, along the western coast of central Sumatra island. Just as the house in the equatorial regions, rumah gadang generally built on pilings (the stage) has cavity at the bottom which is high enough so can provide fresh air especially in the summer.
In addition, Gadang house built lined up according to the direction of the wind from the north to the south in order to be free from the sun and wind.
Roof that is tapered is a typical architecture that distinguishes it from other tribes building in equatorial latitudes that.
Gadang houses have characteristic which are very distinctive. Essentially a form is quadrangle of beams that expands upward. Sharp lines and gentle curved sectional with lower middle part. Curved roofs are very sharp like buffalo horns, while the form of the house curved and ramps like the ship hull. Roofs made from palm fiber.
If it is seen in terms of its function, Gadang houses show the adjustment to the tropical nature. Useful roof taper to release sediment on fibers that are layered, so that rain water will glide quickly on its roof.
Gadang highly exalted even considered sacred. As the venerable and considered sacred every person who come into gadang house would wash his feet first down the stairs. There is provided a wide flat rock, called “Batu Telapakan” which is also a place of water from rock called “Cibuk Meriau” and a bucket of water from the wood named “Taring Berpanto”.
Minangkabau society harmonize life in a natural, harmonious and dynamic, so that their life embraced dialectical theory which they call “bakarano bakajadian” (causal and effect), conflict and balance. Their work which menumental like rumah gadang also contains that philosophy.
The houses only can be found in the small village “Wae Rebo” which is located in the district Manggarai on Flores Island. The houses of the of Manggarai tribe are called “Mbaru Niang” and look like cones.
United Nations which in charge of culture and science said that the provision Award of Excellece to Mbaru Niang is a new recognition of the architectural conservation.
This traditional house beat the 42 other candidates from 11 countries in Asia Pacific, including the historic irrigation systems in India, Zhizhusi complex in China, and Khilingrong mosque in Pakistan.
Wae Rebo can be regarded as a rare type. Not many cone houses are left in Flores.
In Wae Rebo there are four Mbaru Niang in similar size, except one house that serves as the main house and is larger sized where all custom meetings are held. Each house has six to eight families. In their history, once there were seven houses arranged in a semicircle.
In 2010, two aged cone houses have been demolished and rebuilt. In 2011, three cone houses were built, the villager have managed to restore back seven cone houses. All was done by local communities without outside interference. Originality and cultural richness of Wae Rebo are created without outside interference.
UNESCO also gave an award to the Foundation for Foster House, which was pioneered by the eminent architect Yori Antar from Jakarta. First time Yori and his colleagues visited the village in 2008, without knowing exactly where the village is located. Only by pictures on some postcards they asked people around to take them to the village.
With his efforts, finally he succeeded to lead the architectural project in Wae Rebo, utilizing local traditions and empower local people to rebuild the traditional house in the west of Flores.
Bunaken Island is famous for Forest Park in the middle of the ocean or sea which had entered the National Park and has the highest biodiversity in the world oceans.
Bunaken Island is located in the north of Sulawesi, precisely in the Bay of Manado, and is included the territory of Indonesia. The extent of approximately 8.08 km2, but if totalized, Bunaken island has an area of ??approximately 75,265 hectares with five islands in it, among others: the island of Manado Tua, Siladen Island, Mantehage Island, Naen Island and some islands from Mantehage island protected within the Bunaken National Park.
Bunaken National Park is representative for Indonesian tropical water ecosystems consisting of mangrove ecosystems, sea grass beds, coral reefs, land and coastal ecosystems.
The name “Bunaken” is known far abroad as one of the best dive sites in the world. Indonesia as a country with many islands in the world has plenty of magnificent beaches and marine biodiversity. In the Bunaken Marine Park the visitors will see the various forms of marine life which are beautiful and colorful.
Bunaken Island lined up from the southeast to the northwest part of the island. In this region also exist Great Underwater Walls which are often called the Hanging Walls or giant rock walls that stand vertically and curved upward.
According to the records, there are about 91 species of fish and live in the Bunaken Marine Park, while coral reefs totaling 13 species domination by the majority of marine rocks.
There are 20 point dive for scuba diving that could be enjoyed by the visitors who want to get the sensation while swimming in the bottom of the sea with a variety of marine life around.
Other than that view of the ocean still can be seen not only through diving, but in a way by boarding semi submarine ships that can be found offshore Bunaken Island. This ships have walls of glass, so visitors can see the view of the sea.
Bunaken National Park was established in 1991 and on 2005 UNESCO made ??Bunaken becoming one of the world heritage and made the tourism in that area more popular.
Bedugul is a tourist attraction that is no less interesting with other places in Bali. Located in the hills with a very cool weather, in the village of Yellow Temple, Baturit subdistrict, Tabanan district, approximately 45 km away from the center of the district (Tabanan), and the distance 50 km from Denpasar town to the northern region, following the temple area highway to go to the place which is located on the edge of Bratan/Beratan lake, the second largest lake in Bali. Boats are also rented for the visitors who want to enjoy the beauty of the lake.
As well as the other tourist attractions in Bali there are also some Hindus temples as a venue for religious events in this location. The famous temple in this place is “Ulun Danu (Ulun Lake) Temple” or is also named as a “Ulun Danu Bratan” temple.
The temple is characterized by the existence of several levels (11 levels) on the top of temple. The form of the temple can be described as a tower building , where the lowest level has the largest size. Each level has a special function for worship, level 11 for Vishnu, level 7 for Brahma and level 3 for Shiva (Hindus God).
Ulun Danu Bratan consist of 4 complex of the temples, that are: “Linga Petak” temple, “Pucak Penataran Mangu” temple, Terate Bang temple, and “Dalem Purwa” temple, which all functioning as a place of worship to The God in their manifestation as a Tri Murti (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu) in order to invoke the grace of fertility, prosperity, human well-being and sustainability of the universe. The Hindus who is came there also for praying to “Danu Goddess”, the Goddess of water, to ask for fertility. Ulun Danu Bratan is known as a center of Balinese irrigation.
In the front left yard of Ulun Danu Bratan, there are sarcophagus and stone board that are came from megalithic era around 500 BC. At this moment both artifacts are placed on the top of Babaturan or terrace which is estimated as the location of Ulun Danu Temple and had been used as a place of ritual activities since the time of the ancient megalithic. Religious ritual ceremony still continues to this day.
Ceremony of Hinduism religion (Bali Customs) at Ulun Danu Bratan Bedugul Bali
Tanah Lot is one of the famous sights on the island of Bali, located in the Village Beraban, Kediri District, Tabanan Regency. The distance is about 13 km to the west of the city of Tabanan. From Ngurah Rai airport can be reached in less than 1 hours drive.
Tanah Lot is a tourist attraction in Bali that offers the natural beauty of the sunset. The uniqueness of Pura Tanah Lot is that the place is located in the middle of the sea about 300 meters from the beach which also there is the large rock with a large cave in the middle of it.
Here there are two temples located at the top of the large rock. One is located at the top of the boulder which, when the tide is high the temple will be seen surrounded by sea water and the other one is located on the north on the top of the cliff, jutting into the sea. This cliff becomes a liaison between the temple in the middle of the sea and the mainland which is shaped like a curved bridge.
Pura (Temple) Tanah Lot as a temple in the middle of the sea is the worship place to the guardian gods of the sea. Usually visitors will come in the afternoon to see the beautiful sunset.
Tanah Lot is derived from the word “Tanah” that is interpreted as the land, and “Lot” means the sea. So Tanah Lot interpreted as the land that is in the middle of the sea. Pura Tanah Lot was founded in the 15th century by a Hindus priest named Nirartha from the Kingdom of Majapahit (on Java Island) on his way to spread the Hindu religion from the land of Java in the 16th century. Before giving the instructions to set up a temple in this place, he felt the vibrations of purity and obtained spiritual perfection.
According to the Legend, Danghyang Nirartha who successfully strengthened the confidence of the local community about the teachings of Hinduism, the sacred leader in that place named Bendesa Beraban felt threatened because many of his followers became followers of Danghyang Nirarta. Then Bendesa ordered Danghyang Nirartha to leave Tanah Lot.
He agreed but before leaving the Tanah Lot, with all his strength he moved the stone blocks to the middle of the beach and built the temples there. He also changed his scarf into a snake as a temple guardians. The snakes are still exist to this day and they are species of sea snakes that have a characteristic flat tail like a fish, striped black and yellow color. Bendesa Beraban was amazed and later became followers of Danghyang Nirartha.
In some small tunnels in the vicinity of the barrier reef of Pura Tanah Lot are places where the striped snakes that are benign are located and trusted by society as the guardian of the temple. Around the temple there are freshwater springs which can be seen during low tide. The existence of the spring water had been a major consideration when this place was chosen as the location of the temple.
Tanah Lot currently is managed professionally, equipped with various facilities. Entrance fee includes accident insurance and for every vehicle that enters the Tanah Lot location, accident insurance is directly covered by the pay parking fees.
Turtle Island is on the south part of the beautiful island Bali, small island for turtle breeding area located near Tanjung Benoa, Nusa Dua, both Islands are still connected to each other. There, you can see the turtle up close and play with other animals.
Several places nearby also provide adequate water sports activities such as Jetskiing, Parasailing, Banana Boat, Flying fish and other aquatic tourist that is close to Tanjung Benoa, about 20-30 minutes.
To go to Turtle Island, you must hire a boat from Tanjung Benoa beach provided by the water sports operators. Admission into the Turtle Island is free, usually included the cost of boat transportation.
During the journey to Turtle Island, visitors can see directly the beauty of marine life, fish and beautiful coral reefs, from a specially designed ‘glass bottom’ boat. Inside the boat, is prepared bread to feed the fish. At a certain distance, the boat will stop and you can feed the fish.
Feeding Fish from the boat
Arriving at Turtle Island, you can look straight to the pond of the turtle parents, and turtle babies are in the other pool. You will be given an explanation by the a local guide about breeding of turtles and turtles life.
You can get into the pool and take pictures with them. Turtle moms have a very large size. You are advised not to make a stress the turtles, such as a lot of movements that can make them shocked and also not allowed to throw trash to the pond.
Big Turtles in the pond
Besides turtles, there are several other animals, such as birds, snakes, monkey, iguanas, bats, and much more. You can take photos directly with the animals.
There is available a store that sells a variety of souvenirs from Turtle Island.
Ubud Monkey Forest (Wanara Wana)is a nature reserve and temple complex in Ubud-Bali. This park is home to approximately 340 monkeys which are known as long-tailed monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Ubud Monkey Forest is a sacred popular tourist attraction in Ubud and often visited by over 10,000 tourists per month.
Padangtegal Wenara Wana Ubud Monkey Forest Foundation and the villagers of PadangTegal work together to manage and operate Ubud Monkey Forest, and also to maintain the sanctity of the park and promote the holy site as a tourist destination.
The Monkey Forest attractions are located in Pakraman Padangtegal Ubud Village and have a total area of 10 hectares is the focus for the tourist, because this area has many forms of behavior patterns of nature and life with the religious atmosphere. In addition to the forest and see monkeys living directly in the wild, tourists who come there can also see that there are three temples in the jungle Monkey Forest tourism which is known by the worlwide, related with indigenous communities Padangtegal. The reason comes from an emotional connection in which this structure is a paradise where the Pura Desa Adat Padangtegal as a “source of sanctity” of the other temples there, named Pura (Temple) Agung Dalem.
Pura Dalem Agung is located in the southwest of the local forest. This temple is the main attraction in the hills of Padangtegal and is the most important place in the forest. In this area also exist Prajapati temple, the place where cremation is located in the east and along the parameter funeral are held. With the daily activities of people who live in traditional and religious ways, make the Monkey Forest has an area for tourism as cultural attractions.
In the monkey forest area there is also the Holy Spring Temple. In this Holy Spring temple you can make a wish by throwing a coin into the fish pond. The existence of Monkey Forest attraction development began around 1970. Conditions were much different at this time. At first the forest which full of monkeys did not get much attention. Box of donation is provided for contributing in financing and maintaining area.
The number of tourists that visit who want to see monkeys in the region make Monkey Forest in Bali become very popular. Further development in an effort to preserve the existence of attraction started with the enactment of admission tickets to the visitor and the price is very affordable.
At the entrance visitors can buy bananas to give to hundreds of monkeys in the jungle. Monkeys here are more benign than the monkeys in different places like in Uluwatu and Sangeh, because the guards routinely feed them 3 times a day. Upon entering the Monkey Forest tourism area or the Ubud Monkey Forest, visitors or tourists will be treated to views of lush forests. A river running through the woods adds to the attractions. Most visitors were attracted by the activities from various of monkeys in the forest.
Hundreds of gray monkeys in the forest are divided into five major groups which have territorial and have a different leader. Between one group to another group, monkeys live apart within the limits of their territory. If a monkey passed through to the other monkey boundaries, there will be a fight between groups of monkeys. The seriousness of the traditional village to manage this attraction can be seen from the more professional treatment of the area.
The Monkey Forest in this case not only as a tourist attraction, but traditional villager are now trying to open the tourism region to develop the existing village. One way is to establish the Center for Data and Information Padangtegal Indigenous Village.
Monkey Forest in addition to the attraction is also a center for research and conservation. The monkeys are in that place not only as a spectacle, but also as an important component in spiritual and community life which is also used as a research site of research institutions around the world.
From the results of studies that have been carried out, the monkeys are often nomadic. Each group has its own life. Group leader is always followed by the members. Monkeys Bali are mostly females (matrilines) while the male monkeys usually migrate.
The Borobudur Temple is one of the famous tourist attractions in Indonesia which is located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 824 BC or 9th century by Buddhist Mahayana.
This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Millions of people want to visit this buildings which included in the World Wonder Heritages. Besides being a tourist attraction, is also a center of worship for Buddhists in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Waisak/Vesak . This is according with its name meaning “monastery in the hills”.
The founder of the Borobudur Temple was the King Samaratungga, which comes from the dynasty Syailendra. The possibility this temple was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to the story hereditary named Gunadharma.
This temple for centuries was no longer used. Then because of volcanic eruptions, most of the Borobudur Temple building, covered with volcanic soil, trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the days of Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.
In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, during the colonial era heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects in the village of Magelang Bumisegoro and because he was very interested to the history of Java, Raffles immediately ordered the HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the location of the discovery which was a hill covered with shrubs.
Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that cover the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then Cornelius Raffles reported to the invention includes a few pictures. Because of that discovery, Raffles was honored as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple was continued restored in the Dutch colonial period.
After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage of Borobudur. In 1963, was decided officially, that the government of Indonesia will conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help from UNESCO. However, this restoration completely began on August 10, 1973. The new restoration process was completed in 1984. Since 1991, the temple of Borobudur set as World Heritage Site, or the World Heritage by UNESCO. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles gave the name of this temple with the name “Borobudur” , based on the true story with all evidence that are written and documented by him
Other than that, there are some other etymology folks said that the word of Borobudur came from the words: “The Buddhist”. Another explanation is : the name was derived from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word coal supposedly derived from “temple”, and the meaning of beduhur is “high”, or reminding the Balinese language meant “above”. So Borobudur meant monastery on a higher ground.
Borobudur temple which located in Magelang, Central Java, has 10 levels which consists of six levels of a square, 3 levels of a circular and a main Stupa as the peak. At each level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha inside it. Ten level of Borobudur temple describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva (Buddha philosophy) which must pass to reach the perfection to become Buddha in nirvana (heaven). This perfection is symbolized by the main stupa at the top level.
On the fourth side of the temple, there is a gate and stairs to the level above, it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. The next step then, the stone become sand, plants, insects, wild animals, pets, and reborn as a human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is become soul and eventually get into nirvana and all about those things illustrated in the reliefs and sculptures in the entire temple walls of Borobudur. Borobudur has 2670 different relief that are read clockwise. The relief illustrate a story and to read it begins and ends at the gate on the east temple as a main Gate.
This huge building is the form of giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone spliced without using cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected based on a pattern, and stacked. The stones which used approximately 55 000 cubic meters. All the stone was taken from the river around Borobudur. These stones are cut and spliced and transported to a pattern like lego games.
Borobudur temple is one the evidence the greatness and human intelligence ever in Indonesia. Borobudur temple becomes the object of cultural tourism, other than Bali and some other places in Indonesia.
Komodo Island is an island located in the Nusa Tenggara island, Eastern part of Indonesia. The island is known as the Komodo dragon habitat for native animals. This island is the Komodo National Park which managed by the Central Government. Komodo Island is located in the eastern of the island Sumbawa, which is the western end of East Nusa Tenggara Province, bordering the province of West Nusa Tenggara.
On this island, komodo animals live and breed well. In this island there are about 1,318 in number. There is also another island, such as the nearby island of Rinca Island which a habitat for native animals of ancient komodo. Rinca island also became one of the of the island which belong to the Komodo National Park.
Why komodo island more famous? That is because the island of Komodo was the place where the first komodo discovered by Dutch Lieutenant, Steyn van Hens Broek in the early 20th century, and later named by the name of that animal.
Besides the two large islands, there are two other islands are included in Komodo National Park, and became komodo habitat, that are : 1. Gili Motang Island, with 68 populated komodo, and 2. Pulau Padar, populated 86 komodo.
Every tourists who visit the island of Komodo would be taken to travel to Rinca Island. In this island tourists will be invited to explore the tracks along the 2 km-8 km to visit komodo habitat, as well as on the Komodo Island. Track length and duration of the trip depends on the choice of tourists.
In komodo native habitat, visitors must be accompanied by tour guides (rangers) who are trained to deal with komodo. Tourists are also highly discouraged out of the group.
If we look at a glance, we might think komodo are lazy animals. Komodo also prefer silent or walking slowly. In fact, they can run at speeds 16 miles-18 miles per hour when chasing prey. They also can swim up to 500 meters. Tail and fangs are the power of them. Komodo classified as vicious animals. They are very sensitive to the smell of blood, even smell the blood within 5 km and are also sensitive to sudden movement and noise. If they have the disorder, komodo can be agitated and aggressive.
When face the attack from komodo, the ranger will hit the ancient animal’s neck with branches sticks which he always carried. Try not to get hurt when tracking or walking around.
Planning determination of the Komodo National Park as the New Seven Wonders of Nature in mid-May 2012 will make Komodo Island will be known around the world and is expected to attract more local and foreign tourists.
Archaeological sites in the district of Gunung Padang (Mount Padang) Cianjur Regency not everyone knows. In fact, these megalithic sites, with an area of 3 ha, claimed to be the largest megalithic sites in Southeast Asia. Certainly very unfortunate if we did not know it. Cianjur Regency want to make this site as a flagship tourist destination as well as education.
To reach the site, only jeeps and similar vehicles and motorcycles which can continue up to the location of the site. Gunung Padang sites located on top of a the hill, to reach from the base must climb a steep staircase, 95 meters high, made from andesite rocks pillars which laid nearly 400 stairs.
The view over the entire hill and building of megalithic sites is amazing. In the yard of megalithic sites, the visitors will listen to the explanations from tourists guide about this site from a variety of scientific approaches, also look at of thousands andesite stones which formed the pillars, four-or five-sided arranged in such a way as to various functions.
This site estimated as an ancient cemetery. The existence of this site then reported back to the local government cultural overseers by local residents. Since then, the site has been examined in considerable depth while still leaves a variety of archaeological controversy. Archaeologists agree that the site is not a cemetery as stated by Krom (1914), that just mentioned that the site was estimated as an ancient tomb, but a place of worship.
Gunung Padang is the site located in an area geologically that have a quite active earthquake, not far from section Cimandiri, which stretches from the Gulf Pelabuhan Ratu, up to about Padalarang (districts in West Bandung regency, West Java province). If there is activation from the geological forces around the Gulf of Pelabuhan Ratu, South of West Java, then it often becomes a mediator of shocking quake.
Some of the toppled and broken menhir in area of the site and is projected to cause earthquakes. In relation to worship, this site can be built for that purpose, so that people are protected from earthquake or volcanic sources that are not far from Mount Padang. Mount Gede occupied a very strong geomantic position for the Site of Mount Padang. Mount Padang site was built to be oriented entirely to Mount Gede.